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Resting energy expenditure of morbidly obese patients using indirect calorimetry: The researcher should ensure that the answer to a question is not influenced by previous questions. Recent changes in the design of tubes such as the use of a stiffer double pigtail catheter with a spring in the jejunal portion of the tube , however, seem to result in less displacement. Forgoing artificial nutrition and hydration: C-reactive protein alone or in combination with pre-albumin may provide some useful information to the clinician with regard to changes in the level of inflammation and resolution of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Volume-based feeding in the critically ill patient.

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Questionnaires, Datasets, and Related Documentation

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Within social science research and practice, questionnaires are most frequently used to collect quantitative data using multi-item scales with the following characteristics: Before constructing a questionnaire survey, it is advisable to consider how the results of the research will be used.

If the results won't influence the decision-making process, budgets won't allow implementing the findings, or the cost of research outweighs its usefulness, then there is little purpose in conducting the research.

The research objective s and frame-of-reference should be defined beforehand, including the questionnaire's context of time, budget, manpower, intrusion and privacy.

The types of questions e. The manner random or not and location sampling frame for selecting respondents will determine whether the findings will be representative of the larger population. The level of measurement — known as the scale , index, or typology — will determine what can be concluded from the data. The nature of the expected responses should be defined and retained for interpretation. A common method is to "research backwards" in building a questionnaire by first determining the information sought i.

Brand C , then being certain to ask all the needed questions to obtain the metrics for the report. Unneeded questions should be avoided, as they are an expense to the researcher and an unwelcome imposition on the respondents. All questions should contribute to the objective s of the research. Topics should fit the respondents' frame of reference, as their background may affect their interpretation of the questions.

Respondents should have enough information or expertise to answer the questions truthfully. Writing style should be conversational, yet concise and accurate and appropriate to the target audience and subject matter. The wording should be kept simple, without technical or specialized vocabulary.

Ambiguous words, equivocal sentence structures and negatives may cause misunderstanding, possibly invalidating questionnaire results. Double negatives should be reworded as positives. If a survey question actually contains more than one issue , the researcher will not know which one the respondent is answering. Care should be taken to ask one question at a time. Questions and prepared responses for multiple-choice should be neutral as to intended outcome.

A biased question or questionnaire encourages respondents to answer one way rather than another. The order or grouping of questions is also relevant; early questions may bias later questions. Loaded questions evoke emotional responses and may skew results. The possible responses should also be mutually exclusive, without overlap.

Respondents should not find themselves in more than one category, for example in both the "married" category and the "single" category in such a case there may be need for separate questions on marital status and living situation.

Many people will not answer personal or intimate questions. For this reason, questions about age, income, marital status, etc. Presentation of the questions on the page or computer screen and use of white space, colors, pictures, charts, or other graphics may affect respondent's interest — or distract from the questions.

Numbering of questions may be helpful. Questionnaires can be administered by research staff, by volunteers or self-administered by the respondents. Clear, detailed instructions are needed in either case, matching the needs of each audience.

There are a number of channels, or modes, that can be used to administer a questionnaire. Each has strengths and weaknesses, and therefore a researcher will generally need to tailor their questionnaire to the modes they will be using.

For example, a questionnaire designed to be filled-out on paper may not operate in the same way when administered by telephone. These mode effects may be substantial enough that they threaten the validity of the research. A systematic review of the literature. A metaanalysis of treatment outcomes of early enteral versus early parenteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Overview of enteral and parenteral feeding access techniques: Surg Clin North Am ; Early enteral nutrition and outcomes of critically ill patients treated with vasopressors and mechanical ventilation.

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Usefulness of data on albumin and prealbumin concentrations in determining effectiveness of nutritional support. A critical evaluation of body composition modalities used to assess adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in cancer. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; Interactions between nutrition and immune function: Proc Nutr Soc ; Monitoring health by values of acute phase proteins.

Evaluation of serum C-reactive protein, procacitonin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin levels as diagnostic and prognostic parameters in patients with community-acquired sepsis, sepsis syndrome and septic shock.

Clinical outcomes related to muscle mass in humans with cancer and catabolic illnesses. Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; Acute skeletal muscle wasting in critical illness. The use of indirect calorimetry in the intensive care unit.

Best practices for determining resting energy expenditure in the critically ill adults. Nutr Clin Practice ; Feeding critically ill patients: Predictive equations for energy needs for the critically ill. Prediction of resting metabolic rate in critically ill adult patients: J Am Diet Assoc ; Resting energy expenditure in malnourished older patients at hospital admission and three months after discharge: Longitudinal prediction of metabolic rate in critically ill patients.

Resting energy expenditure of morbidly obese patients using indirect calorimetry: Analysis of estimation methods for resting metabolic rate in critically ill adults. Improved equations for predicting energy expenditure in patients: A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals.

Accurate determination of energy needs in hospitalized patients. Caloric requirements in total parenteral nutrition. J Am Coll Nutr ;6: Measured versus calculated resting energy expenditure in critically ill adult patients.

Do mathematics match the gold standard? Oral nutritional support in malnourished elderly decreases functional limitations with no extra costs. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients. Protein recommendations in the ICU: A reappraisal of nitrogen requirements for patients with critical illness and trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; Nutritional strategies to counteract muscle atrophy caused by disuse and to improve recovery.

Nutrit Res Rev ; Evaluation of early enteral feeding through nasogastric and nasojejunal tube in severe acute pancreatitis: Motility disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract in the intensive care unit: J Clin Gastroent ; Motility disorders in the ICU: Gastrointestinal symptoms in intensive care patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; Impaired gastrointestinal transit and its associated morbidity in the intensive care unit.

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J Hosp Med ;9: Fang J The University of Utah www. North American summit on aspiration in the critically ill patient: J Parenter Enteral Nutr ;26 6 Suppl: The Canadian critical care nutrition guidelines in Nosocomial sinusitis in patients in the medical intensive care unit: Clin Infect Dis ; Complications of enteral access.

Interventions for dysphagia and nutritional support in acute and subacute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; The effect of nutritional supplementation on survival in seriously ill hospitalized adults: J Am Geriatr Soc ;48 5 Suppl: Techniques in enteral access. Nasal Bridles for securing nasoenteric tubes: Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: Early supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults increased infections, ICU length of stay and cost. Evid Based Med ; Port AM, Apovian C.

Metabolic support of the obese intensive care unit patients: World Rev Nutr Diet ; Efficacy of hypocaloric parenteral nutrition for surgical patients: Effect of early enteral combined with parenteral nutrition in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy.

World J Gastroenterol ; Consensus recommendations from the US summit on immune-enhancing enteral therapy. J Parenter Enteral Nutr ;25 Supplement: Early enteral supplementation with key pharmaconutrients improves sequential organ failure assessment score in critically ill patients with sepsis: Enteral nutritional supplementation with key nutrients in patients with critical illness and cancer: Should immunonutrition become routine in critically ill patients?

A systematic review of the evidence. J Parenter Enteral Nutr ;37 5 Suppl: Nutrition optimization prior to surgery. Early ICU energy deficit is a risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia. Optimisation of energy provision with supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: J Gastroenterol Hepatol ;28 Suppl 4: Nutrition support protocols and their influence on the delivery of enteral nutrition: Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; Postinjury enteral tolerance is reliably achieved by a standardized protocol.

J Surg Res ; Effect of evidence-based feeding guidelines on mortality of critically ill adults: Outcomes in critically ill patients before and after the implementation of an evidence-based nutritional management protocol. Infusion protocol improves delivery of enteral tube feeding in the critical care unit. Enhanced protein-energy provision via the enteral route feeding protocol in critically ill patients: Volume-based feeding in the critically ill patient.

Mechanisms underlying feed intolerance in the critically ill: Methods for the assessment of gastric emptying in critically ill, enterally fed adults. Poor validity of residual volumes as a marker for risk of aspiration in critically ill patients. Gastric residual volumes in critical illness: Crit Care Clin ; Aspirating gastric residuals causes occlusion of small-bore feeding tubes. Microaspiration in intubated critically ill patients: Infect Disord Drug Targets ; Effect of not monitoring residual gastric volume on risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults receiving mechanical ventilation and early enteral feeding: Impact of not measuring residual gastric volume in mechanically ventilated patients receiving early enteral feeding: J Clin Monit Comput ; Diarrhea in enterally fed patients: Re-examination of risk factors for non-Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in hospitalized patients.

J Adv Nurs ; Bartel B, Gau E. Risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in critically ill patients treated with erythromycin-based prokinetic therapy for feed intolerance. Current issues on safety of prokinetics in critically ill patients with feed intolerance. Ther Adv Drug Saf ;2: Pharmacological therapy of feed intolerance in the critically ill. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther ;5: Control of diarrhea by fiber-enriched diet in ICU patients on enteral nutrition: Effect of a fecal bulking agent on diarrhea during enteral feeding in the critically ill.

Soluble fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in septic patients receiving total enteral nutrition: Effect of a bulk-forming cathartic on diarrhea in tube-fed patients. Mixed fibers diet in surgical ICU septic patients.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; Diarrhoea during enteral feeding in the critically ill: Fiber supplementation influences phytogenic structure and functional capacity of the human intestinal microbiome: Clearing obstructed feeding tubes. Prophylactic locking of enteral feeding tubes with pancreatic enzymes. Care and long-term maintenance of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes.

Early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults. Early parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients with short-term relative contraindications to early enteral nutrition: The effect of postoperative intravenous feeding TPN on outcome following major surgery evaluated in a randomized study. Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: Mirtallo JM, Patel M.

Overview of parenteral nutrition. Quality of hospice care for individuals with dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc ; Comfort care for terminally ill patients: Tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia: Enteral tube feeding for older people with advanced dementia.

Forgoing artificial nutrition and hydration: Ethical and medicolegal aspects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement and provision of artificial nutritional therapy. ASGE task force on enteral nutrition. Can percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy prevent gastroesophageal reflux in patients with pre-existing reflux? Am J Gastroent ; Outcome of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in relation to respiratory dysfunction.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; Eur J Neurol ; J Clin Neurosci ; Nutritional management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Palliative venting percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube is safe and effective in patients with malignant obstruction.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; Artificial nutrition and hydration at the end of life: Palliat Support Care ;4: Recommendations for Physicians and Patients from the U. We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of effect. We are moderately confident in the effect estimate:

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