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Cellulose Definition and Structure

Atoms Around Us
Substance that an organism uses to live. In recent years frantic efforts have been make to locate and isolate compounds with extraordinary affinity for free radicals. Tokyo [54] translocation of trace elements to leaf tissues — Aiken, G. Gaia is basically a closed thermodynamic system because…. A mass balance approach. Inorganic nutrients include nutrients such as iron , selenium , and zinc , while organic nutrients include, among many others, energy-providing compounds and vitamins.

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Parenteral Nutrition

It has four main components: Blood has many different functions, including:. The blood that runs through the veins, arteries, and capillaries is known as whole blood, a mixture of about 55 percent plasma and 45 percent blood cells. About 7 to 8 percent of your total body weight is blood. An average-sized man has about 12 pints of blood in his body, and an average-sized woman has about nine pints. Doctors who specialize in hematology hematologists are leading the many advances being made in the treatment and prevention of blood diseases.

If you or someone you care about is diagnosed with a blood disorder, your primary care physician may refer you to a hematologist for further testing and treatment.

Known for their bright red color, red cells are the most abundant cell in the blood, accounting for about 40 to 45 percent of its volume. The shape of a red blood cell is a biconcave disk with a flattened center - in other words, both faces of the disc have shallow bowl-like indentations a red blood cell looks like a donut.

Production of red blood cells is controlled by erythropoietin, a hormone produced primarily by the kidneys. Red blood cells start as immature cells in the bone marrow and after approximately seven days of maturation are released into the bloodstream. Unlike many other cells, red blood cells have no nucleus and can easily change shape, helping them fit through the various blood vessels in your body.

However, while the lack of a nucleus makes a red blood cell more flexible, it also limits the life of the cell as it travels through the smallest blood vessels, damaging the cell's membranes and depleting its energy supplies.

The red blood cell survives on average only days. Red cells contain a special protein called hemoglobin, which helps carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then returns carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs so it can be exhaled. Blood appears red because of the large number of red blood cells, which get their color from the hemoglobin.

The percentage of whole blood volume that is made up of red blood cells is called the hematocrit and is a common measure of red blood cell levels. White blood cells protect the body from infection. They are much fewer in number than red blood cells, accounting for about 1 percent of your blood. The most common type of white blood cell is the neutrophil, which is the "immediate response" cell and accounts for 55 to 70 percent of the total white blood cell count.

Each neutrophil lives less than a day, so your bone marrow must constantly make new neutrophils to maintain protection against infection.

Transfusion of neutrophils is generally not effective since they do not remain in the body for very long. The other major type of white blood cell is a lymphocyte. There are two main populations of these cells. The small intestine is the main site of nutrient absorption. This increased surface area allows for greater nutrient absorption. Microbes produced in the reticulorumen are also digested in the small intestine.

After the small intestine is the large intestine. The major roles here are breaking down mainly fiber by fermentation with microbes, absorption of water ions and minerals and other fermented products, and also expelling waste.

Only small amounts of glucose are absorbed from dietary carbohydrates. Most dietary carbohydrates are fermented into VFAs in the rumen. The glucose needed as energy for the brain and for lactose and milk fat in milk production, as well as other uses, comes from nonsugar sources, such as the VFA propionate, glycerol, lactate, and protein. Hofmann and Stewart divided ruminants into three major categories based on their feed type and feeding habits: Also, some mammals are pseudoruminants , which have a three-compartment stomach instead of four like ruminants.

The Hippopotamidae comprising hippopotami are well-known examples. Pseudoruminants, like traditional ruminants, are foregut fermentors and most ruminate or chew cud. However, their anatomy and method of digestion differs significantly from that of a four-chambered ruminant. Monogastric herbivores , such as rhinoceroses , horses , and rabbits , are not ruminants, as they have a simple single-chambered stomach. These hindgut fermenters digest cellulose in an enlarged cecum through the reingestion of the cecotrope.

Wild ruminants number at least 75 million and are native to all continents except Antarctica. Species inhabit a wide range of climates from tropic to arctic and habitats from open plains to forests. The population of domestic ruminants is greater than 3. Goats were domesticated in the Near East circa BC. Most other species were domesticated by BC. Ruminating animals have various physiological features that enable them to survive in nature.

One feature of ruminants is their continuously growing teeth. During grazing, the silica content in forage causes abrasion of the teeth. This abrasion is compensated for by continuous tooth growth throughout the ruminant's life, as opposed to humans or other nonruminants, whose teeth stop growing after a particular age.

Most ruminants do not have upper incisors; instead, they have a thick dental pad to thoroughly chew plant-based food. This is known as rumination, which consists of the regurgitation of feed, rechewing, resalivation, and reswallowing.

Rumination reduces particle size, which enhances microbial function and allows the digesta to pass more easily through the digestive tract. Vertebrates lack the ability to hydrolyse the beta [1—4] glycosidic bond of plant cellulose due to the lack of the enzyme cellulase. Thus, ruminants must completely depend on the microbial flora, present in the rumen or hindgut, to digest cellulose.

Digestion of food in the rumen is primarily carried out by the rumen microflora, which contains dense populations of several species of bacteria , protozoa , sometimes yeasts and other fungi — 1 ml of rumen is estimated to contain 10—50 billion bacteria and 1 million protozoa, as well as several yeasts and fungi.

Since the environment inside a rumen is anaerobic , most of these microbial species are obligate or facultative anaerobes that can decompose complex plant material, such as cellulose , hemicellulose , starch , and proteins. The hydrolysis of cellulose results in sugars, which are further fermented to acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, carbon dioxide, and methane. The enzyme lysozyme has adapted to facilitate digestion of bacteria in the ruminant abomasum.

During grazing, ruminants produce large amounts of saliva — estimates range from to litres of saliva per day for a cow. After digesta pass through the rumen, the omasum absorbs excess fluid so that digestive enzymes and acid in the abomasum are not diluted. Tannins are phenolic compounds that are commonly found in plants. Found in the leaf, bud, seed, root, and stem tissues, tannins are widely distributed in many different species of plants. Tannins are separated into two classes: Depending on their concentration and nature, either class can have adverse or beneficial effects.

Tannins can be beneficial, having been shown to increase milk production, wool growth, ovulation rate, and lambing percentage, as well as reducing bloat risk and reducing internal parasite burdens.

Tannins can be toxic to ruminants, in that they precipitate proteins, making them unavailable for digestion, and they inhibit the absorption of nutrients by reducing the populations of proteolytic rumen bacteria. The Law of Moses in the Bible only allowed the eating of mammals that had cloven hooves i. The verb 'to ruminate' has been extended metaphorically to mean to ponder thoughtfully or to meditate on some topic. Similarly, ideas may be 'chewed on' or 'digested'. In psychology, "rumination" refers to a pattern of thinking, and is unrelated to digestive physiology.

Methane is produced by the archea , methanogens , described above within the rumen, and this methane is released to the atmosphere. The rumen is the major site of methane production in ruminants. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Climate change and agriculture.

Is galactose an essential nutrient?