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Food Security & Nutrition around the World

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Handbook of Plant Nutrition. A large proportion of the world population is also affected by micronutrient vitamin and mineral deficiencies. As mentioned before, levels of childhood stunting and wasting persist across regions and countries; yet, simultaneously, there has been an increase in overweight and obesity, often in the same countries and communities with relatively high levels of child stunting. Adult obesity rates continue to rise each year, from The states are made up of pairs of attributes hot and moist, cold and moist, hot and dry, and cold and dry , which are made of four humours: Mineral nutrient and Composition of the human body.

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Hunger is significantly worse in countries with agricultural systems that are highly sensitive to rainfall and temperature variability and severe drought, where the livelihood of a high proportion of the population depends on agriculture and where the country does not have in place sufficient support measures to counter the fallout.

In other words, for almost 36 percent of the countries that experienced a rise in undernourishment since , this coincided with the occurrence of severe agricultural drought. Out of 27 countries with increasing change points in the prevalence of undernourishment occurring under severe drought stress conditions, most 19 countries are in Africa, with the remaining four in Asia, three in Latin America and the Caribbean, and one in Eastern Europe.

The temperature anomalies associated with El Niño show that climate variability and extremes affect agriculture. If we look at increasing change points in the PoU time series we see that many correspond to occurrences of severe drought. For example, for almost 36 percent of the countries that experienced a rise in undernourishment since , this coincided with the occurrence of severe drought. Most striking is the significant increase in the number of change points related to severe drought conditions in — in which nearly two-thirds of the change points occurred.

In these cases,the PoU increased from onwards, and this can be linked to severe droughts driven by El Niño in — A closer review reveals that many countries have witnessed periods of increased undernourishment over the past years; however, during the period of the ENSO event of — this change across so many countries contributed to a reversal of the PoU trend at the global level.

This association is further corroborated by a number of studies that show a strong link between drought and stunting in children. For example, drought events in Bangladesh are associated with a higher stunting rate around five and nine months after the beginning of the drought event. In rural Zimbabwe, one- to two-year olds exposed to drought face significantly lower growth velocity compared to children of the same age living in areas with average rainfall.

In sub-Saharan Africa, warmer and drier climates are related to declining food availability and increased prevalence estimates of childhood stunting. Climate variability and extremes are among the key drivers behind the rise in hunger.

Exposure of countries to climate variability and extremes is also a rising trend. In , the average of the PoU in countries with high exposure to climate shocks was 3. Even more striking is that countries with high exposure have more than doubled the number of undernourished people as those without high exposure. Prevalence unweighted and number of undernourished people in low- and middle-income countries with high and low exposure to climate extremes during the period of — Countries with high exposure are defined as being exposed to climate extremes heat, drought, floods and storms for more than 66 percent of the time, i.

See Annex 2 for the list of countries with high exposure to climate extremes and methodology. The impact of climate variability and extremes on agriculture and food security: Rome, FAO, for classification of countries with high and low exposure to climate extremes; FAO for data on prevalence of undernourishment.

A high dependence on agriculture, as measured by the number of people employed in the sector, leaves the PoU 9. For low-income countries, the increase is equal to The finding is different for middle-income countries where the rise in PoU is less pronounced and occurs later from — This tends to indicate that middle-income countries were able to absorb the impacts of increased exposure to climate extremes, but may not have been able to cope as well in the — period, possibly due to the severity of exposure to El Niño.

While hunger is on the rise, it is equally alarming that the number of people facing crisis-level food insecurity continues to increase. This represents an increase compared to and , when 80 and million people, respectively, faced crisis levels. In 34 of these 51 countries, more than 76 percent of the total populations facing crisis levels of acute food insecurity or worse — nearly 95 million people — were also affected by climate shocks and extremes.

Where conflict and climate shocks occur together, the impact on acute food insecurity is more severe. In , 14 out of the 34 food-crisis countries experienced the double impact of both conflict and climate shocks, which led to significant increases in the severity of acute food insecurity. Floods cause more climate-related disasters globally than any other extreme climate event, with flood-related disasters seeing the highest increase — 65 percent — in occurrence over the last 25 years.

The frequency of storms is not increasing as much as that of floods, but storms are the second most frequent driver of climate-related disasters. Climate variability and extremes have the strongest direct impact on food availability, given the sensitivity of agriculture to climate and the primary role of the sector as a source of food and livelihoods for the rural poor. However, the overall fallout is far more complex and greater than the impacts on agricultural productivity alone.

Climate variability and extremes are undermining all dimensions of food security: Climate variability puts all aspects of food security at risk: Direct and indirect climate-driven impacts have a cumulative effect, leading to a downward spiral of increased food insecurity and malnutrition.

As mentioned, an obvious impact is that climate variability and extremes negatively affect agricultural productivity, in terms of changes in crop yields the amount of agricultural production harvested per unit of land area , cropping areas area planted or harvested , or cropping intensity number of crops grown within a year.

The sectors of fisheries, aquaculture and forestry often are under-reported. Impact of disasters on forestry is generally acknowledged in assessments, although rarely quantified in monetary terms. The impact of disasters and crises on agriculture and food security In addition, climate variability and extremes also affect food imports as countries try to compensate for domestic production losses. The impacts on production will inevitably translate into loss of income for people whose livelihoods depend on agriculture and natural resources, reducing their ability to access food.

Another factor is spikes in food prices and volatility follow climate extremes. Climate anomalies, and in particular extreme events, alter agricultural yields, production and stocks. Episodes of high food price volatility pose a major threat to food access , especially in low- and middle-income countries and among poorer groups in high-income countries. The impact of price spikes and volatility not only falls heaviest on the urban poor, but also of small-scale food producers, agriculture labourers and the rural poor who are net food buyers.

Climate variability and extremes also lead to income loss for those whose livelihoods depend on agriculture and natural resources, which then negatively impact food access as households have less resources to purchase food. Household studies provide evidence that access to food and income of small family agriculture households is negatively impacted by climate variability and extremes.

There is also evidence that climate shocks not only affect the level of income, but affect also the variability of incomes. Changes in climate also heavily impact nutrition through impaired nutrient quality and dietary diversity of foods produced and consumed; impacts on water and sanitation, with their implications for patterns of health risks and disease; and changes in maternal and child care and breastfeeding.

Households adopt coping strategies in response to food and income reductions and increased prices following climate shocks. More erratic rainfall and higher temperatures along with other extreme events affect the quality and safety of food. Changing climate conditions and extremes such as temperature and humidity can lead to increased contamination of water and food.

Even increased contamination of water used for irrigation can affect the safety of crops and animals that consume them, as well as the resulting food output. Unsafe water and food create a vicious cycle of diarrhoea and malnutrition, threatening the nutritional status of the most vulnerable. You have clicked on a link to a page that is not part of the beta version of the new worldbank.

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