Agriculture

Regulatory Requirements

Meal frequency and timing in health and disease
A meta-analysis and review of the evidence for genotype-dependent effects on lifespan. Rodríguez-Bies E , Navas P , López-Lluch G Age-dependent effect of every-other-day feeding and aerobic exercise in ubiquinone levels and related antioxidant activities in mice muscle. Mike, those 4 nootropics all support each other so there is no harm in taking them together. Further animal studies are required to better elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which meal frequency, IER, and TRF affect health and disease susceptibility, as well as the impact of eating patterns on extant disease processes in various experimental models. This review highlights recent findings showing that the combination of alpha-lipoic acid plus vitamin E effectively reduces oxidative damage in brain and cardiac ischemia as well as in other pathological events related to ROS increasing. Hi David, I am learning so much from your site.

Climate Change Indicators

Climate Change Indicators: Bird Wintering Ranges

However, the intermediate trophic level is only represented by one or two species. This trophic layer, which consists of small, pelagic fish usually makes up about only three to four percent of the species diversity of all fish species present. The lower trophic layers are very well-represented with about species of copepods , species of gastropods , and species of crustaceans on average. At the apex and near-apex trophic levels, there are usually about species of marine mammals and about 50 species of marine birds.

The vital intermediate trophic species however are small pelagic fish that usually feed on phytoplankton. In most upwelling systems, these species are either anchovies or sardines, and usually only one is present, although two or three species may be present occasionally. These fish are an important food source for predators, such as large pelagic fish, marine mammals, and marine birds.

Although they are not at the base of the trophic pyramid, they are the vital species that connect the entire marine ecosystem and keep the productivity of upwelling zones so high [11]. A major threat to both this crucial intermediate trophic level and the entire upwelling trophic ecosystem is the problem of commercial fishing.

Since upwelling regions are the most productive and species rich areas in the world, they attract a high number of commercial fishers and fisheries. On one hand, this is another benefit of the upwelling process as it serves as a viable source of food and income for so many people and nations besides marine animals.

However, just as in any ecosystem, the consequences of over-fishing from a population could be detrimental to that population and the ecosystem as a whole. In upwelling ecosystems, every species present plays a vital role in the functioning of that ecosystem. If one species is significantly depleted, that will have an effect throughout the rest of the trophic levels. For example, if a popular prey species is targeted by fisheries, fishermen may collect hundreds of thousands of individuals of this species just by casting their nets into the upwelling waters.

As these fish are depleted, the food source for those who preyed on these fish is depleted. Therefore, the predators of the targeted fish will begin to die off, and there will not be as many of them to feed the predators above them.

This system continues throughout the entire food chain , resulting in a possible collapse of the ecosystem. It is possible that the ecosystem may be restored over time, but not all species can recover from events such as these. Even if the species can adapt, there may be a delay in the reconstruction of this upwelling community.

The possibility of such an ecosystem collapse is the very danger of fisheries in upwelling regions. Fisheries may target a variety of different species, and therefore they are a direct threat to many species in the ecosystem, however they pose the highest threat to the intermediate pelagic fish.

Since these fish form the crux of the entire trophic process of upwelling ecosystems, they are highly represented throughout the ecosystem even if there is only one species present. Unfortunately, these fish tend to be the most popular targets of fisheries as about 64 percent of their entire catch consists of pelagic fish. Among those, the six main species that usually form the intermediate trophic layer represent over half of the catch.

Besides directly causing the collapse of the ecosystem due to their absence, this can create problems in the ecosystem through a variety of other methods as well. The animals higher in the trophic levels may not completely starve to death and die off, but the decreased food supply could still hurt the populations. If animals do not get enough food, it will decrease their reproductive viability meaning that they will not breed as often or as successfully as usual. This can lead to a decreasing population, especially in species that do not breed often under normal circumstances or become reproductively mature late in life.

Another problem is that the decrease in the population of a species due to fisheries can lead to a decrease in genetic diversity, resulting in a decrease in bio-diversity of a species.

If the species diversity is decreased significantly, this could cause problems for the species in an environment that is so variable and quick-changing; they may not be able to adapt, which could result in a collapse of the population or ecosystem. During the normal period and La Niña events, the easterly trade winds are still strong, which continues to drive the process of upwelling.

However, during El Niño events, trade winds are weaker, causing decreased upwelling in the equatorial regions as the divergence of water north and south of the equator is not as strong or as prevalent.

The coastal upwelling zones diminish as well since they are wind driven systems, and the wind is no longer a very strong driving force in these areas. As a result, global upwelling drastically decreases, causing a decrease in productivity as the waters are no longer receiving nutrient-rich water.

Without these nutrients, the rest of the trophic pyramid cannot be sustained, and the rich upwelling ecosystem will collapse. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The replacement by deep water moving upwards of surface water driven offshore by wind. This may result in coastal upwelling. Effects of equatorial upwelling on surface chlorophyll concentrations in the Pacific ocean. Upwelling in the Southern Ocean. Unusually strong winds from the east push warm red surface water towards Africa, allowing cold blue water to upwell along the Sumatran coast.

A KYR record of upwelling off Oman during the late quaternary: Upwelling mechanisms in the northwestern Alboran Sea. As Zn is taken up by plants, Zn becomes available from less labile forms. The relationships between the various forms of Zn and how their interaction is related to other chemical factors is reviewed by Barrow The uptake of Zn from the soil and into the plant Lindsay depends on:.

Most Australian soils under crop production are inherently low in most micronutrients including Zn. This includes acidic and alkaline soils, be they sands or clays. This is attributed to Australian soils arising from highly weathered parent material with low micronutrient nutrient status, including shell grit Holloway et al. Difficulties in interpreting soil test results leads to preference for plant testing as a quantitative diagnostic tool BCG Alternatively, Norton et al advocate a subjective assessment of Zn availability by considering relevant soil factors; soil pH, soil moisture, organic matter, P content, soil texture and soil compaction.

The overall message from GRDC in economically difficult conditions , is to apply zinc to crops based on immediate need rather than use a program designed to build or replace nutrients. No specific timing for zinc application is recommended and no agronomic preference is given for the thee application methods; seed dressing, soil fertiliser or foliar fertiliser.

For applications to soil, Holloway states that best practice for calcareous soils in South Australia is to apply Zn and other elements in liquid rather than granular form. The amount of major nutrients required for a crop is given in terms of kilogram required for a target grain yield but the equivalent for trace elements is not provided GRDC Reuter et al b.

This is equivalent to 85 — g for a crop with an above ground. Application rates of Zn are higher when applied to soil that when applied to leaves. Information about the availability of residual fertiliser Zn from Western Australia suggests that less frequent Zn applications will suffice however their soils are more acidic Bolland and Brennan , Brennan and Bolland The principles for effective fertiliser use are to select the right source of nutrients, applied as the right rate, and in the right place and at the right time.

These four rights 4Rs of nutrient stewardship indicate that these four factors are all interlocking and if one is altered, the whole approach should be reconsidered Bruulsema et al , Norton and Roberts There are three different forms of Zn fertilisers used in wheat production; seed dressing, fertiliser applied to soil and foliar fertiliser.

There are few direct agronomic comparisons of the efficiency of these three fertiliser types on grain yield production of Australian wheat. GRDC only discriminates between them in terms of their immediate costs and residual effect. Soil-based fertilisers are used as a long-term strategy to increase or maintain Zn availability whilst seed dressing and foliar applications only resolve the immediate deficiency.

Zinc fertiliser is mainly applied to the soil at seeding time as either liquid or solid zinc sulphate ZnSO4 , as solid zinc oxide ZnO Mortvedt and Gilkes , or as a. A major difference between ZnO4 and ZnO is their solubility in water and therefore their immediate availability to plants; ZnO4 is water soluble whilst ZnO has a low solubility in water Mortvedt and Gilkes Alternative soil amendments that are by-products of other industries, including biosolids and flyash, are available in particular regions however there agronomic values is yet to comprehensively assessed and may contain toxic quantities of other heavy metals Cooper ,.

Comparing the effectiveness of different Zn fertiliser forms shows that liquid ZnSO4 is more effective at producing the same grain yield than granular ZnSO4 and the Zn impurities in superphosphate Mortvedt and Gilkes This general finding matches results from alkaline soils on the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia Bertrand et al where liquid fertiliser produced higher grain yields than powdered fertiliser.

However, the role of liquid Zn in the Eyre Peninsula research cannot be separated from the role of P and N as the fertilisers were a mix of P, N and Zn Holloway et al Brennan and Bolland a show that soil pH effects the effectiveness of powdered Zn fertilisers with ZnSO4 being superior to ZnO on alkaline soils and equivalent on acid soils.

Overall, these results indicate that ZnSO4, particularly in a liquid form is a more efficient source of Zn that other soil applied Zn fertilisers especially in alkaline soils. The principles demonstrated by the research presented are likely to be applicable in south-eastern Australia however no local field research is available that examines Zn alone or compares ZnO and ZnSO4. Foliar application of Zn is an alternative to soil applied Zn fertiliser.

Foliar application has the advantage of allowing Zn to be applied strategically based on seasonal progress and the occurrence of visual symptoms. Comparing the effect of foliar Zn and soil applied Zn on wheat grain yield shows no difference on an alkaline sandy loam on the Eyre Peninsula Oliver et al and better yields with soil applied Zn on acid sands in Western Australia Brennan The type of foliar Zn fertiliser, ZnSO4 or zinc chelate, that was most effective for the wheat grown on sands was dependent on timing of application Brennan Foliar Zn fertiliser is applied to wheat in south-eastern Australia to reduce the impact of yellow leaf spot Pyenophora tritici-repentis however there is no evidence in referreed literature that this is an effective treatment for crop disease in wheat.

Logistically, placement of soil-applied fertilisers can be shallow or at depth. Ma reviewed the effectiveness of deep placement of fertilisers in Mediterranean environments, including south-eastern Australia. Deep placement of fertiliser generally means applying fertiliser at least 30mm below the seed. Placement of fertilisers containing elements with low mobility, including P and Zn, improves grain yields in environments where the top soil is prone to drying out and subsequently nutrients are immobilised Lindsay , Ma et al These environments include the sandy soils of Eyre Peninsula and low rainfall environments Wilhelm Australian research specifically examining the benefits of placing Zn at depth is rare.

Wheat needs Zn to be available throughout the life of the plant Longnecker and Robson Thus Zn must be supplied at seeding in soils deficient in Zn. The agronomic advantage of applying Zn at depth in soil prone to drying means that in practice Zn fertiliser must be applied before or during seeding in those.

Similarly, the yield advantage of applying liquid fertiliser to calcareous and alkaline soils means that application must occur before or during seeding. The timing of application for foliar Zn fertilisers is operationally more flexible than solid fertiliser. However, for yield responses, timing must occur early in crop growth if plants are deficient in Zn and are not to suffer a yield penalty Brennan The most effective form of Zn in foliar applications varies with the timing of the application.

Zinc chelate is more effective at increasing grain yield than ZnSO4 when applied at 4 leaf stage growth stage GS 14 according to Zadoks et al Both forms of foliar Zn are equally effective when applied later at mid-tillering GS There are three general approaches to determining whether a nutrient needs to be applied soil testing, historical records plant testing.

Soil testing in a pre-emptive indicator for the amount of major nutrients nitrogen N , phosphorus P and potassium K available to a planned crop. Soil samples are tested for Zn as a cheap adjunct to testing for major elements. Placement of soil- sampling points influences soil test results with higher Zn values occurring if all samples are taken on existing rows rather than between rows Bolland and Brennan.

Sampling randomly both in and between rows provides an overall Zn value for the sample area. Soil testing of the top 10cm layer is promoted for the major cropping soils in Australia as being relevant for making decisions about immobile plant nutrients such as P GRDC Given availability of Zn in soil is reduced as soil pH increases Lindsay , pH of the solution is standardised at pH7.

Critical Zn values relevant to wheat for extractable Zn vary with soil type Armour and Brennan and not all soil types have been calibrated for the extraction. This limits interpretation of test results with some soils being unresponsive to Zn although they are deemed to be Zn deficient Oliver et al However, soil calibrations for this method have not been pursued and subsequently are rare Armour and Brennan Zn application through fertiliser is virtually omitted when high analysis fertilisers such as mono- ammonium phosphate MAP and di-ammonium phosphate DAP are used exclusively rather than fertilisers such as superphosphate that contain Zn impurities Brennan that are sufficient for wheat production in Western Australia sands Riley et al A history of symptoms of Zn deficiency in past crops does not always indicate that applying Zn fertiliser to the current crop will lead to an improvement in grain yield Oliver et al Zinc can be taken up by plants through the leaves Haslett et al Therefore limited calibrations for soil Zn coupled with the technical possibility of foliar application of Zn makes tissue testing viable for diagnosing and correcting Zn deficiencies as the plant grows.

Zinc is a trace element thus plant samples must be taken with care to avoid contamination with Zn from other sources such as soil or cutting tools Reuter et al a. Zinc is largely immobile in soil and only moves short distances from the point of placement.

In soil columns, Zn leaches less than 3cm down calcareous silty clay Jurinka and Thorne In the field, Zn leached up to 6cm below the point of application in acidic sandy soils in Western Australia after heavy rains Brennan and McGrath In contrast, Zn fertiliser moved up to 45cm into a sandy soil profile under young trees Barrows et al These differences in movement support the inclusion of soil texture in subjective assessment for Zn availability Norton et al.

Zinc fertiliser applied to soil has a residual effect on crop growth for several years depending on crop and soil type. Lindsay concluded after reviewing the literature, that Zn fertilisers applied to soil have a residual effect for two to eight. For best taste, follow the brewing directions listed on the bag or box.

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