Snake Diseases

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Principles of Dog Nutrition
Heidi Stanley Hi i bought a 3ft viv off you and a beardie in august with light fittings, hiw much is a new uv light please and also the red heat bulb? Monkfield sets the bar when it comes to livefood production and continue to do so. Basic principles of therapeutics used in reptile medicine. See More See Less. Other protein sources are then compared to egg whites regarding their digestibility.

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Do not administer intracoeloemically if there is a suspected space-occupying lesion, pneumonia, obstipation, egg retention, or preovulatory follicles. Divided Doses The daily amount of fluid cannot be administered all at once; instead, it should be divided into doses. This prevents overloading the kidneys. Under normal circumstances, healthy animals who are eating and drinking normally and who are living in an environment that meets their humidity needs will succeed in keeping hydrated.

The factors described above can lead to dehydration, especially in wounded or starved animals. Green iguanas and others species who evolved in high-humidity environments may experience a chronic low level of dehydration throughout their captive lives that ultimately cause kidney damage and an early death due to kidney failure. This strain on the kidneys can be worsened if the iguana is put on systemic antibiotics, so all antibiotic therapy should be accompanied by fluid therapy to ensure the iguana is getting sufficient fluids for his normal daily needs as well as additional fluid to compensate for the effect of the drug on his kidneys.

If your vet prescribes oral or injectible antibiotics for your iguana, be sure to ask about supplemental fluids PO, IC or SQ during the time the iguana is taking the antibiotics. Routes of Administration There are various ways that fluids can given to a sick reptile or one requiring additional fluids for a specific reason, such as in conjunction with systemic antibiotic therapy, or to correct moderate to severe dehydration.

Reptiles who have been starved to the point of emaciation will require rehydration before nutritional support can be started. The following routes of administration are for these exceptional needs, not for administering basic maintenance fluids on a daily basis to an otherwise healthy reptile.

In mammals, fluids are generally given by IV as it is the most direct and efficient way to get the fluids into and circulated throughout the body. Unfortunately, this is tricky at best when it comes to reptiles, as anyone who has ever tried to draw blood from a major blood vein in a reptile knows.

Since fluids are most often administered at home by the reptile keeper, most of whom do not have experience hitting a vein intentionally and repeatedly in their reptiles, there are other ways that are easier, though it may cause the reptile keeper more stress than it does their reptile. PO per os Giving fluids or anything else by mouth to reptiles can be difficult, given the vast numbers of sharp teeth, the glottis , and often cranky disposition a sick reptile may have.

When dealing with venomous reptiles, matters are rather compounded by the fact that you may get more than a few teeth left behind in a bite wound.

When giving fluids by mouth, you need to watch out for the glottis that sits on the tongue at the back of the mouth in most reptiles; in chameleons and snakes, the glottis will be behind the tongue sheath. When expressing fluids or liquid nutrition slurries into a reptile, do it slowly enough so that it flows down towards the stomach, rather than so fast that it backs up into the mouth. If fluid or slurry backs up into a reptiles mouth, stop forcing the fluid or slurry through the tube.

Tilt the reptile with its head downward to let the fluid or slurry run out of his mouth and let him catch his breath. For the most rapid uptake of PO fluids, they should be warmed before being administered.

The advantage of administering fluids in this way is that they are more quickly absorbed and more fluid can be administered at one time than when giving fluids by mouth or subcutaneous injection. The problem with this route of administration is that you need to be shown how to do it, where to place the needle, and watch the slant of the needle.

If done incorrectly, you could puncture an organ or the intestine. This is not something to attempt do to on your own without first being shown how and without someone, initially at least, to restrain the reptile for you so that you can concentrate on the injection itself.

A mark can be made on most reptiles, using povidone-iodine or even nail polish formaldehyde and tuolene free , around the injection site to help you remember. Insert the needle between two scales, not through a scale.

Lizards the right side of the lower abdomen to avoid the urinary bladder Chelonians the loose skin cranial to the rear legs. Snakes the lower third of the body due to the need to avoid the lung s. The needle, held at a slant, is inserted between the scales deep enough to get through the skin. The fluid is then expressed slowly out of the syringe. If more fluid than can be injected at one site must be administered, remove the needle and insert in another site.

Preferred sites for subcutaneous injections are: Lizards shoulder blade area Chelonians in the loose skin in the shoulder areas Snakes midway between the muscle groups along either side of the spine on the back and the lateral midline of the body. Injections made in the shoulder area need to avoid the neck cervical to avoid any damage that could lead to neurological complications. Intramuscular IM Medications are most often injected Intramuscularly in the muscle.

Locations for IM injections are: Lizards in the muscle groups in the front legs or in the muscles along the back and neck Chelonians in the muscle groups in the front legs or in the muscles in the shoulder area Snakes midway between the muscle groups along either side of the spine on the back and the lateral midline of the body. Choosing The Route of Administration As can be seen, different types of injections have different requirements: Not all reptiles are designed in the same way, making one type of injection or another difficult or impossible.

For example, chameleons have very thin, poorly muscled legs, making it difficult to give medications IM. Chameleons, anoles and day geckos tend to get very highly stressed when handled, especially when handling is combined with the pain of an injection.

The injection itself can cause pain and discoloration, and the psychological stress may lead to a worsening of the condition, or at least a delay in recovery. On the other hand, it may be easier to secure a venomous snakes head and administer an injection in the body, than try to insert a pill or oral syringe into its mouth.

Did you know that even if the dog food label says that the ingredients are X, Y, Z that there may not be any X or Y or Z in the food at all? How could this happen? The practice of substitution of one or more ingredients is a greater possibility if you buy that food from a small local mill or if the food is of a generic variety. Generally, the larger manufacturers have set ingredient parameters that don't vary. This is called a fixed formula. On the other hand, some pet food producers will substitute ingredients and not change the label to truthfully reflect what you're buying.

Price and availability of raw ingredients change from day to day, the less ethical producer will then substitute one ingredient for another in order to keep production costs to a minimum. They want to make that food as cheaply as possible! And changing the label to reflect the ingredient change is not required to be done immediately. Any type of arachnid excluding ticks. The capacity that feed has to give nutrition to livestock.

A medical condition in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. The digestive tract containing the stomach and intestine. The whole system involved in digestion from mouth to anus. Dry Roasted Mealworms Dry roasting is a good way to store excess mealworms. Roasting removes the moisture from the insects while retaining much of their protein and nutritional value.

Eating Dry Roasted Mealworms Dry roasted mealworms can be salted or dipped in chocolate and eaten as a snack, sprinkled on salads, and added to soup.

They taste a lot like peanuts and can replace nuts in cookies, cakes, and other desserts. Since roasted worms are brittle, they can be ground and mixed with flour when you bake muffins, pancakes, or bread. The different ways these insects can be added to recipes is almost limitless.

How to Dry Roast mealworms Place your live mealworms in a colander and toss and rinse them under cool water. This is to remove any food and substrate from the worms.

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