Morbidity from infectious diseases is increased in iron-deficient populations, because of the adverse effect of iron deficiency on the immune system. The indicator is defined as the proportion of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years. The study found that health literacy increases with education and people living below the level of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are the regions with the highest global hunger indexes and the highest poverty rates. Perhaps for this reason Australian aviculturalists have never been caught up by the pellet propaganda.
In most cases, especially those caught early-on by observant owners, GI stasis can be reversed with time, patience and good advice from your rabbit vet. But our goal is to prevent it from happening at all. Check the feces while cleaning the litter box. If there are no feces for hours contact your vet immediately. Never give babies under six months old hairball remedy without first consulting your rabbit vet.
While the use of hairball remedies as preventatives can be helpful, there is some question as to how helpful or harmful it is to administer them to rabbits already in GI stasis. If the intestinal contents are severely dehydrated and brick-hard yes, we have seen this!
For this reason, it is probably wise to concentrate on re-hydrating the intestinal contents before using petroleum-based laxatives, if they are to be used at all Krempels, Dana M. This, in addition to a proper diet and plenty of fun and exercise, as well as close observation of the litter box and the general behavior and condition of the rabbits goes a long away towards keeping bunny GI tracts healthy and happy. Vet intervention is always called for when this sort of situation presents itself.
Not all vets know and see rabbits, however, so it is important that you locate a good rabbit vet in your area before an emergency arises. If you have a rabbit that is difficult to keep weight on or off, consult your vet. Do not feed your rabbit any of the many commercial pellet mixes that contain seeds, dried fruit or colored cereals. These commercial treat foods are geared to look pleasing to us humans, but they are definitely not in the best health interests of your pet rabbit.
Rabbits are not seed, fruit or cereal eaters by nature and these types of junk foods are high in sugars and carbohydrates, which as we talked about earlier can lead to an overgrowth of bad bacteria.
It is his prime source of fiber, which is instrumental in keeping the gut in good working order. A rabbit with tooth problems is a rabbit on his way to having GI problems as well. Fresh timothy, oat and other grass hays should be available to all bunnies all the time. Alfalfa hay , which is higher in calories as well as calcium which can cause kidney or bladder problems sludge in older rabbits is okay to feed to physically fit bunnies under the age of one, but should be avoided for the average healthy, mature house rabbit.
Some rabbits have higher protein needs older or sick rabbits, angoras, etc. Again, consult your vet with all special dietary questions. We feel that a variety of tastes encourages the bunnies to eat more hay, and the variety of nutrients may be beneficial. Certainly no harm is done!
Anything to encourage more fiber consumption! It is best to avoid purchasing pellets and hays from grocery stores and pet store chains, as the feed can sit on the shelves or in storage for months, which makes it stale and lacking in proper nutrient values. You can usually purchase good quality pellets OxBow , Purina High Fiber… and hays from local feed stores, or online from our store.
Some rabbit vets also sell high quality pellets, and often, local rabbit rescues will sell hays and pellets to help supplement the high costs of rescue what we do. It is important to feed your rabbit a daily variety of fresh vegetables to help balance out the nutritional needs in his diet. All vegetables should be fresh, washed and organic whenever possible. Humans do not generally consume the tops of these vegetables, so little consideration is given to what pesticides are sprayed on them and they could be very dangerous or fatal to your rabbit.
To make sure your rabbit gets the necessary nutrients offer him at least three different vegetables daily and make sure one or more contain Vitamin A. Never give fruit to dieting bunnies. Too much sugar can make your bunny fat, because excess energy a by-product of sugar consumption is converted to — fat! Feeding your rabbit a limited amount of high fiber pellets, abundant fresh grass hays and a daily assortment of fresh vegetables is a key factor in keeping your rabbit healthy.
It is important to divide the pellets and vegetables between the morning and evening meals, while having hay and fresh water available at all times. And remember, exercise is just as important as diet in keeping the rabbit gut functioning and healthy. A rabbit should get a minimum of 3 — 5 hours out of cage exercise every day.
Take all dietary changes slowly. Quick changes to the diet can cause diarrhea or an overgrowth of that bad bacteria in the gut. Also keep in mind that different rabbits have different dietary needs. Younger rabbits, elderly rabbits, smaller breeds such as the Netherlands Dwarf, large breeds like the Flemish Giant and long haired rabbits all have different needs and you should consult your Rabbit Vet for more specific information. I would also like to thank the House Rabbit Society for their invaluable contributions to rabbit veterinary medicine, as well as for their endless information on general rabbit care.
By eating a lot of fat and close to zero carbohydrates you too can enjoy enhanced health, quality of life, performance, brain function, and abs you can grate that cheese on. Aside from being an incredibly helpful and friendly voice on the other end of the phone, Lindsay is also a tireless advocate for a health condition that has shaped her life in many ways: Epilepsy is an ancient brain phenomenon, known to medicine thousands of years ago.
By , a pair of Parisian doctors were trying fasting as a treatment for children with epilepsy, and in the United States, physical culturist Bernarr McFadden was claiming that fasting for three days to three weeks could cure anything.
Despite not having the tools and insight of modern neuroscience, these and other people who explored fasting and dietary prescriptions for neurological disorders were on to something. We evolved with a pretty strong aversion to starvation , and our brains and GI tracts have lots of ways to make sure we eat enough. Which raises the question: Could we get the health benefits of fasting another way?
Endocrinology researcher Rollin Woodyatt noted that the same chemical environment happened with both starvation and a diet that was very low in carbohydrates and very high in fat. Could a person get the health benefits of fasting without actually fasting? Not only did children with epilepsy seem to improve overall with this type of diet, they seemed to think and behave better as well.
Proven by several notable medical authorities, a ketogenic diet as a treatment for childhood epilepsy found its way into medical textbooks by around , and stayed there throughout the 20th century. In , aging, contact sports, and modern warfare now present us with new populations of people whose brains might benefit from a ketogenic diet:.
There was another group of people who became curious about ketogenic diets some time in the s and s: They wanted to be ripped. The ketogenic diet seemed like a magic bullet: Physique- and performance-conscious people, as well as people looking to maximize lifespan and life quality, have rediscovered this old-school dietary paradigm and are wondering:.
Ketogenic diets, on the other hand, include less protein — usually closer to 10 or 20 percent of total daily intake. The Precision Nutrition plate suggests high-fiber, slow-digesting carbohydrates, such as whole grains, beans and legumes, fruits, and starchy vegetables.
The ketogenic meal shoots for near-zero carbs. Most estimates suggest around grams of carbs a day. For the whole day. The Precision Nutrition plate suggests about thumb-sized portions of fat-dense foods like nuts, cheese, avocado, olive oil, etc.
The ketogenic meal, on the other hand, is high fat — even up to 90 percent of total energy intake. A ketogenic diet is the most restrictive and limited of all four of these styles of eating. For other people, of course, it may not be helpful… and it may be actively harmful. Put very simply, when the conditions are right for instance, during starvation or fasting, or when our carb intake is very low:. Stereoisomers are molecules with the same chemical makeup, but different shapes and configurations.
Shape and orientation matter to molecules and their actions, just like having right-handed and left-handed gloves or shoes matters. Each stereoisomer uses different enzymes for conversion, much like each lock has its own unique key. You want to supplement the right stereoisomer, rather than a random pile of ketone types.
Usually in test tube chemistry, you get a mix of stereoisomers often around half one type, and half another type , unlike our body, which only uses and makes one version. Some people like to think of ketone bodies as the fourth energy source for humans in addition to carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Ketosis, which just means having more ketone bodies than normal, should not be confused with ketoacidosis , which is a potentially dangerous metabolic situation of uncontrolled ketosis.
If it senses acid levels rising as happens in ketosis , it responds by buffering with more alkaline molecules such as bicarbonate , changing blood levels of CO2, absorbing hydrogen ions, or telling the kidneys to excrete more dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium ions. This usually happens in diabetics and alcoholics, since their normal metabolic mechanisms may not work properly.
For the average healthy person, dietary ketosis or even brief fasting is generally safe. How do we get into ketosis? Ketogenesis We can make our own ketone bodies naturally, through the process of ketogenesis. Our ancestors kicked off ketogenesis the good old fashioned way: Ketosis is essentially an effect of fasting. This means that many of the health effects of fasting may be due to ketosis itself, rather than something like energy restriction.
This may have to do with our energy-hungry human brains. About 20 percent of our overall energy intake is devoted to feeding our brains. And it may be this particular evolutionary adaptation — which perhaps began as a way to keep the thinking factory upstairs working when food was scarce — that also enables the brain-benefiting effects of the ketogenic diet.
Stored glucose our sugar-based fuel is actually rather heavy. Our body prefers to store most of our excess energy as body fat. When we eat normally, our brain gets enough energy from glucose that can easily pass the blood-brain barrier. By the way, the relative heaviness of stored glycogen is why many people report fast weight loss on a ketogenic or low-carb diet: Unfortunately, this water and glycogen comes right back once we start eating normally again.
Most people frown on starving children with epilepsy, so a ketogenic diet is the next best thing. Many people like to measure their ketosis with Ketostix, which test for ketones in the urine. Therefore, you may see different readings on the Ketostix, regardless of what is actually happening in your body. Supplement with ketones If ketones are what we want, why not just take them instead of making our own by fasting or cutting out carbohydrates?
This has a lot of cool possibilities. Check back in 10 years. The buzz is that ketone supplements can make you thin and cure whatever ails you. Actually, research on this topic goes back to the s. All of it has been conducted using rats.
Here are the findings. A recent study found that ketone supplementation extended survival in mice with metastatic cancer. For now, almost no studies on ketone supplementation have used human clinical trials. Will ketosis help me? Ketogenesis and ketosis are easy to study. Trust me, we scientists can barely keep the grad students from contaminating the super-purified water by leaving the lid off the jug, never mind organize an evil cabal of ketosis deniers.
To be fair, the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs in the late s onward did lead to less interest in dietary ketosis as a treatment for epileptic children.
In these specific situations, a ketogenic diet or a structured intermittent fasting program done under close medical supervision for a specific objective, may be a useful as part of a multi-pronged treatment program that probably should include other therapeutic tools such as medication or other well-established health procedures.
Could help in some cases, but should be done with a clear purpose and carefully monitored. Ketones may help, in part, because they decrease oxidative stress, boost antioxidants and scavenge free radicals. Oxidation is a natural part of cellular metabolism, but too much oxidation, too fast, without the balance of antioxidants, contributes to many metabolic and other diseases.
If we can slow and regulate oxidation, it may improve our health and longevity. Neurodegeneration and brain injuries We know ketosis for epilepsy is a win — can ketosis help other types of brain illnesses and injuries? These metabolic and neourodegenerative diseases show common features, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. The presence of ketones also seems to improve outcomes from traumatic brain injury TBI.
However, right now, most of these studies have been done on rats. See above about getting medical supervision from someone other than Dr. We know that caloric restriction CR improves longevity in most organisms studied. We know that intermittent fasting seems to have some of the same benefits, sometimes. For now, any longevity benefits would be mostly speculative.
And your th birthday cake would have to be a block of butter. Could we possibly enable people to tap into their stored body fat more effectively, and require less re-fueling from stuff like sugary energy gels? You increase fat oxidation, spare glycogen, produce less lactate and use less oxygen at submaximal rates. It seems that combining ketones with carbs, rather than exclusively using one or the other, might offer some benefit.
Then they drank the other half of their drink and biked as far as they could in 30 minutes. Supplementing with a combination of carbohydrates and ketones may improve performance in aerobic competitions.
Some intriguing possibilities, particularly for aerobic performance, but to date there very little evidence to improve overall athletic performance. Low-carb advocates in the late s and early s thought maybe they had stumbled on the key to fighting flab: Insulin is mainly a storage hormone: Its job is basically to help nutrients get into cells.
For one thing, it got some of us unhooked from processed sugary and starchy treats, and thinking more about fiber content and healthy fats. Unfortunately, insulin is not the only player. Nor does insulin act alone. Energy storage is governed largely by our brain , not a single hormone. The other upside to the low-carb approach was that people often ate more protein and more fat.
Which means we eat less. Which means we lose fat. Lower the carb intake, and our body will eventually release some water and glycogen. You may find it easy to eat less when all you can eat is protein and fat. You may start to have fantasies about a threesome: Not only that, you may be getting some serious scurvy and other nutrient deficiencies.
As part of the carb-insulin hypothesis, people thought that maybe metabolism would also increase during ketosis.