Robert S. Lawrence

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Western pattern diet
An adaptation in growth or metabolism? July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Frontiers of Hormone Research. A mediados del se especializa en el traje de madrina, fiesta y acompañante no solamente vendiendo en sus tiendas de Fuente Palmera sino introduciéndose en la venta a nivel nacional. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Most gifted Previous page. Deliciously Ella The Plant-Based Good Night Stories for Rebel Girls. A Brief History of Humankind. People with class I obesity and heart disease do not have greater rates of further heart problems than people of normal weight who also have heart disease. In people with greater degrees of obesity, however, the risk of further cardiovascular events is increased.

At an individual level, a combination of excessive food energy intake and a lack of physical activity is thought to explain most cases of obesity.

A review identified ten other possible contributors to the recent increase of obesity: A review supported excess food as the primary factor. It has also changed significantly over time. The widespread availability of nutritional guidelines [90] has done little to address the problems of overeating and poor dietary choice. Most of this extra food energy came from an increase in carbohydrate consumption rather than fat consumption.

As societies become increasingly reliant on energy-dense , big-portions, and fast-food meals, the association between fast-food consumption and obesity becomes more concerning. Agricultural policy and techniques in the United States and Europe have led to lower food prices. In the United States, subsidization of corn, soy, wheat, and rice through the U. Obese people consistently under-report their food consumption as compared to people of normal weight.

A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity. The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland [] found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has not changed significantly.

In both children and adults, there is an association between television viewing time and the risk of obesity. Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. As of , more than 41 of these sites on the human genome have been linked to the development of obesity when a favorable environment is present. The term "non-syndromic obesity" is sometimes used to exclude these conditions.

The thrifty gene hypothesis postulates that, due to dietary scarcity during human evolution, people are prone to obesity. Their ability to take advantage of rare periods of abundance by storing energy as fat would be advantageous during times of varying food availability, and individuals with greater adipose reserves would be more likely to survive famine. This tendency to store fat, however, would be maladaptive in societies with stable food supplies. Certain physical and mental illnesses and the pharmaceutical substances used to treat them can increase risk of obesity.

Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes listed above as well as some congenital or acquired conditions: Certain medications may cause weight gain or changes in body composition ; these include insulin , sulfonylureas , thiazolidinediones , atypical antipsychotics , antidepressants , steroids , certain anticonvulsants phenytoin and valproate , pizotifen , and some forms of hormonal contraception.

While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. There are a number of theories as to the cause but most believe it is a combination of various factors. The correlation between social class and BMI varies globally. A review in found that in developed countries women of a high social class were less likely to be obese.

No significant differences were seen among men of different social classes. In the developing world, women, men, and children from high social classes had greater rates of obesity. The decrease in strength of correlation was felt to be due to the effects of globalization.

A similar relationship is seen among US states: Many explanations have been put forth for associations between BMI and social class. It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness.

In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns. A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses. Smoking has a significant effect on an individual's weight.

Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4. In the United States the number of children a person has is related to their risk of obesity. In the developing world urbanization is playing a role in increasing rate of obesity. Malnutrition in early life is believed to play a role in the rising rates of obesity in the developing world.

Consistent with cognitive epidemiological data, numerous studies confirm that obesity is associated with cognitive deficits. The study of the effect of infectious agents on metabolism is still in its early stages. Gut flora has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans. There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential. This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity.

Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally. An association between viruses and obesity has been found in humans and several different animal species. The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined. Certain aspects of personality are associated with being obese. There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity.

In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamus , a region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood.

The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity. The World Health Organization WHO predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health.

Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children, [] and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.

Many organizations have published reports pertaining to obesity. This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children. Comprehensive approaches are being looked at to address the rising rates of obesity. The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies.

The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat , lorcaserin , liraglutide , phentermine—topiramate , and naltrexone—bupropion.

The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. In earlier historical periods obesity was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health.

But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern period , it affected increasingly larger groups of the population. In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic. Once considered a problem only of high-income countries, obesity rates are rising worldwide and affecting both the developed and developing world. Obesity is from the Latin obesitas , which means "stout, fat, or plump".

Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way. It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance [] as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers.

During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity. Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery.

During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers. The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s.

In Britain, the weight at which people considered themselves to be overweight was significantly higher in than in Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa.

This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese. These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility.

After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard. In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment [] [] and increased business costs. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments. Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease.

However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur. Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending. Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment. The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs. Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted.

Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width.

With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease, [16] it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost.

In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory. The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese.

A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.

The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity. In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy.

Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity. Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity.

Obesity in pets is common in many countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Obesity journal. Relative risk of death over 10 years for white men left and women right who have never smoked in the United States by BMI.

Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends. Social determinants of obesity. World obesity prevalence among males left and females right in Percentage of the population either overweight or obese by year.

Retrieved 2 February Archives of General Psychiatry. The New England Journal of Medicine. Criteria and classification of obesity in Japan and Asia-Oceania. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. Treatment of the Obese Patient Contemporary Endocrinology. Retrieved 5 April Frontiers of Hormone Research. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease".

Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 15 February Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Center for disease control and prevention. Retrieved 6 April The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Formulation and Treatment in Clinical Health Psychology.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. American Journal of Medical Genetics. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

European clinical practice guidelines" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 26 April International Journal of Obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery.

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. Current Pain and Headache Reports Review. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports Review. European Journal of Nutrition. Public Health Nutrition Research Support. Asian Journal of Andrology. Neurourology and Urodynamics Review. The Journal of Urology Review. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Review. Seminars in Dialysis Review. Preventive Services Task Force June American Family Physician Review.

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