Songs and Calls of North American Birds

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Bird anatomy
Males sing at least two types of songs during migration; a gurgle followed by a high squeak and a jumble of squeaky notes. Coevolution among many species conservation, biodiversity, and extinction issues In endangered species: The crop skin and muscles have a natural elasticity that assist in the digestion of food and retain their shape as the food is digested. The birds in these recordings sang almost constantly for long periods while concealed in dense foliage near the tops of black spruce trees. A bird of fresh- and saltwater marshes and wet meadows.

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The circular layer prevents food from traveling backward and the longitudinal layer shortens the tract. The layers are not truly longitudinal or circular, rather the layers of muscle are helical with different pitches. The inner circular is helical with a steep pitch and the outer longitudinal is helical with a much shallower pitch. Whilst the muscularis externa is similar throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract, an exception is the stomach which has an additional inner oblique muscular layer to aid with grinding and mixing of food.

The muscularis externa of the stomach is composed of the inner oblique layer, middle circular layer and outer longitudinal layer. Between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers is the myenteric plexus. Activity is initiated by the pacemaker cells, myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal. The gut has intrinsic peristaltic activity basal electrical rhythm due to its self-contained enteric nervous system.

The rate can be modulated by the rest of the autonomic nervous system. The coordinated contractions of these layers is called peristalsis and propels the food through the tract. Food in the GI tract is called a bolus ball of food from the mouth down to the stomach.

After the stomach, the food is partially digested and semi-liquid, and is referred to as chyme. In the large intestine the remaining semi-solid substance is referred to as faeces.

The outermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract consists of several layers of connective tissue. Intraperitoneal parts of the GI tract are covered with serosa. These include most of the stomach , first part of the duodenum , all of the small intestine , caecum and appendix , transverse colon , sigmoid colon and rectum. In these sections of the gut there is clear boundary between the gut and the surrounding tissue.

These parts of the tract have a mesentery. Retroperitoneal parts are covered with adventitia. They blend into the surrounding tissue and are fixed in position. For example, the retroperitoneal section of the duodenum usually passes through the transpyloric plane. These include the esophagus , pylorus of the stomach, distal duodenum , ascending colon , descending colon and anal canal.

In addition, the oral cavity has adventitia. Specific proteins expressed in the stomach and duodenum involved in defence include mucin proteins, such as mucin 6 and intelectin Finally, transit through the colon takes 12 to 50 hours with wide variation between individuals.

The gastrointestinal tract forms an important part of the immune system. There are additional factors contributing to protection from pathogen invasion.

For example, low pH ranging from 1 to 4 of the stomach is fatal for many microorganisms that enter it. Beneficial bacteria also can contribute to the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal immune system. For example Clostridia , one of the most predominant bacterial groups in the GI tract, play an important role in influencing the dynamics of the gut's immune system.

This is due to the production of short-chain fatty acids during the fermentation of plant-derived nutrients such as butyrate and propionate. Basically, the butyrate induces the differentiation of Treg cells by enhancing histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the FOXP3 locus, thus regulating the T cells , resulting in the reduction of the inflammatory response and allergies.

The large intestine hosts several kinds of bacteria that can deal with molecules that the human body cannot otherwise break down. These bacteria also account for the production of gases at host-pathogen interface , inside our intestine this gas is released as flatulence when eliminated through the anus.

However the large intestine is mainly concerned with the absorption of water from digested material which is regulated by the hypothalamus and the re absorption of sodium , as well as any nutrients that may have escaped primary digestion in the ileum. Health-enhancing intestinal bacteria of the gut flora serve to prevent the overgrowth of potentially harmful bacteria in the gut. These two types of bacteria compete for space and "food," as there are limited resources within the intestinal tract.

Enzymes such as CYP3A4 , along with the antiporter activities, are also instrumental in the intestine's role of drug metabolism in the detoxification of antigens and xenobiotics. There are many diseases and conditions that can affect the gastrointestinal system, including infections , inflammation and cancer.

Various pathogens can cause gastroenteritis an inflammation of the stomach and small intestine. These can include those organisms that cause foodborne illnesses. Gastroenteritis is the most common disease of the GI tract. Diverticular disease is a condition that is very common in older people in industrialized countries.

It usually affects the large intestine but has been known to affect the small intestine as well. Diverticulosis occurs when pouches form on the intestinal wall.

Once the pouches become inflamed it is known as diverticulitis. Inflammatory bowel disease is an inflammatory condition affecting the bowel walls, and includes the subtypes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. While Crohn's can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, ulcerative colitis is limited to the large intestine. Crohn's disease is widely regarded as an autoimmune disease. Although ulcerative colitis is often treated as though it were an autoimmune disease, there is no consensus that it actually is such.

Functional gastrointestinal disorders the most common of which is irritable bowel syndrome. Functional constipation and chronic functional abdominal pain are other functional disorders of the intestine that have physiological causes, but do not have identifiable structural, chemical, or infectious pathologies. Gastrointestinal surgery can often be performed in the outpatient setting.

In the United States in , operations on the digestive system accounted for 3 of the 25 most common ambulatory surgery procedures and constituted 9. Various methods of imaging the gastrointestinal tract include the upper and lower gastrointestinal series:. Animal intestines have multiple uses. From each species of livestock that is a source of milk , a corresponding rennet is obtained from the intestines of milk-fed calves.

Pig and calf intestines are eaten, and pig intestines are used as sausage casings. Calf intestines supply calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase CIP , and are used to make goldbeater's skin. Many birds and other animals have a specialised stomach in the digestive tract called a gizzard used for grinding up food. Another feature not found in the human but found in a range of other animals is the crop.

In birds this is found as a pouch alongside the esophagus. Other animals including amphibians , birds , reptiles , and egg-laying mammals have a major difference in their GI tract in that it ends in a cloaca and not an anus.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. If a baby's crop does not empty in a 24 hour period, it must be emptied in order to prevent further complications. This may be done with a piece of plastic tubing used for aquarium air line, or the baby may be held with his head lower than his body and the soured food massaged from the crop, through the esophagus, and out of the mouth. The latter method has a higher risk of aspirating the baby if he breathes food into his lungs in his panic while being turned upside down.

The first method may be risky if the tubing is forced though the walls of the esophagus. If you have never emptied a baby's crop, it is best to contact an avian vet or an experienced breeder to do the task. A stretched crop is a condition seen in handfeeding baby parrots. It is caused by trying to give a baby too much food in one feed, and, thereby, overfilling and stretching the muscles of the crop.

The crop skin and muscles have a natural elasticity that assist in the digestion of food and retain their shape as the food is digested. When empty, the crop should be flat. If the crop is overfilled to the point of stretching the skin and muscles, it will hang onto the breastbone, and a portion of the food will remain in the part of the crop that is overlapping onto the breastbone.

It will appear very much like a deflated balloon. If left uncorrected, the food remaining in the crop will develop bacteria, which will slow the digestive process even more, causing weight loss and possibly eventual death.

If your baby's crop should become stretched, you can help correct the problem by making a "crop bra" for him. The illustration shows a picture of a crop bra. Depending on the size of the baby, it may be made with a wide gauze bandage, or a strip of towel or rag. The wide area in the middle should be long and wide enough to support his crop, the strips should be long enough too be fastened around him.

The upper strips should be fastened, or tied, around the back of his neck, above his wings, and the lower strips should be under his wings and around his back. The crop bra should remain on the baby until his crop muscles are strong enough to empty his crop. Until then, the crop should be emptied completely, and cleaned with warm water, every 24 hours. Splay leg is a condition that begins in very young babies that are not strong enough to hold their legs together on a slippery surface.

It is generally caused by keeping the baby in a container that either does not have enough bedding, or, the surface under the bedding is so smooth that he cannot get his footing.

His legs will spread out to the sides and very soon he will not be able to hold them under him at all. If this condition is not corrected at an early age, it may become permanent as he grows and the bones harden. Splay leg is very easily corrected when it is recognized early enough. If the legs are secured under the baby at a distance apart that would normal for him to stand, the problem can usually be remedied in less than a week.

The correction time will depend on the severity and the age of the chick. It is also important to correct the conditions that caused the problem to prevent it from recurring. Depending on the size of the baby, the legs may be held together with gauze tape, a strip of cloth, or connected rings that his feet will fit through. Whatever you use, make sure that nothing is so tight on this legs that the circulation to his feet is cut off.

If this happens, you may save his legs and lose his feet. Once his legs have become strong enough for him to support him, and stay under him, the supports may be removed. If splay leg is not corrected, the baby's legs will grow out to the sides, and he will never be able to stand normally. This problem most often develops in very young babies that are still growing and developing.

The tendon that normally fits into the groove at the heal of the foot slips to the side of the heal. As the tendon contracts it will cause the foot to turn to the side and the toes to clench. It will look as though the baby is walking on the side of his foot. At less than 2 weeks, I have been able to correct this problem by securing the baby's feet on a piece of tape, much like standing him on a mouse sticky trap. As he gets a little older, the tendon may be surgically pinned in the correct position until it enlarges the groove in the heal to retain placement on its own.

If the condition is not recognized early enough in the babies development, the tendon may shorten so that the baby's foot is permanently turned to the side. If the condition is corrected, there will be no residual side effects, and no evidence that the problem ever existed. Scissor is a condition where the upper mandible is not straight and does not meet correctly over the lower mandible.

There have been many theories as to the cause of this condition, e. It is very possible that it may be caused by any one, or a combination of these. Feeding technique has often been blamed as the cause of this condition, but I believe that there are other contributing factors. I, personally, feed over babies a year, and may have one or two of these that have scissor beak. All of them are fed the same. Although feeding technique may, at times, be one of the causes,there are a number of other possible reasons for the condition.

Heredity may be one of the causes, but I have seen this condition in a babies that were not consistently from any related parentage. This condition may occur in young babies that tend to clamp the top mandible tightly over the lower mandible to one side or the other doing the chugging, feeding motion. This causes a groove to develop in the lower mandible that the upper mandible begins to rest in. In time, the upper mandible begins to curve to one side as it rests in this groove, and the lower mandible grows longer on the opposite side.

Regardless of the cause, or the age of the bird, this condition is generally correctable with persistent trimming of the upper and lower mandibles and the cleft that the upper mandible rests in located on the under side of the upper mandible.

The parrot pictured is a two year old Green Wing macaw that had scissor beak so badly that he could barely eat any hard foods. His lower mandible, on the right side, had grown to extend two inches higher than his upper mandible. His upper mandible curved to the left and formed a long tusk that circled the side of his face and almost touched his cheek.

I cut off the tusk and the extended lower mandible with a large nail clipper, and drummelled both mandibles into shape. I also used the Drummel tool to shape the under side of the upper mandible and to straighten the cleft.

The picture shows what this bird looked like after a couple of weeks of trimming. Since a bird's beak is constantly growing, persistent trimming will eventually result in both mandibles growing normally, and the condition corrected. One of smooth muscular fibres, longitudinally arranged. The tunica submucosa of loose connective tissue, which contains nerves, blood, and lymphatic vessels.

The tunica mucosa or innermost lining, composed of epithelial cells, which give rise to mucous and various specific digestive glands. It is noteworthy that Birds and Reptiles differ from Mammals in the succession of the two muscular layers 2 and 3 , since in the last the circular fibres are placed on the inside, next to the submucosa 4 , while the longitudinal fibres together with the serosa 1 form the outer wall.

These layers vary considerably in the different parts of the Alimentary Canal; thus the thickening of the walls of the gizzard is due to the excessive development of the muscular, layers, while in the oesophagus the mucosa is represented chiefly by ordinary epithelial cells, comparatively few of which form simple mucous glands, though in the region of the proventriculus its cells are transformed into large glands, often closely packed and compressed, constituting the greater part of the thickened walls.

Again, in the gizzard no such specific, but only mucous glands occur, the hardened secretion of which invests its cavity with an additional cuticular lining.

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