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Vegetarianism

Ancient Greek philosophy has a long tradition of vegetarianism. Pythagoras was reportedly vegetarian and studied at Mt. Carmel, where some historians say there was a vegetarian community , as his followers were expected to be. Roman writer Ovid concluded his magnum opus Metamorphoses , in part, with the impassioned argument uttered by the character of Pythagoras that in order for humanity to change, or metamorphose , into a better, more harmonious species, it must strive towards more humane tendencies.

He cited vegetarianism as the crucial decision in this metamorphosis, explaining his belief that human life and animal life are so entwined that to kill an animal is virtually the same as killing a fellow human. Everything changes; nothing dies; the soul roams to and fro, now here, now there, and takes what frame it will, passing from beast to man, from our own form to beast and never dies Therefore lest appetite and greed destroy the bonds of love and duty, heed my message!

Never by slaughter dispossess souls that are kin and nourish blood with blood! Jainism teaches vegetarianism as moral conduct as do some major [] sects of Hinduism.

Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion. Sikhism [] [] [] does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet. Theravadins in general eat meat. In the Theravada canon, Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them from eating meat except specific types, such as human, elephant meat , horse, dog, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena flesh [] but he specifically refused to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion had been made.

In several Sanskrit texts of Mahayana Buddhism , Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. Christians have always been free to make their own decisions about what to eat; however, there are groups within Christianity that practice specific dietary restrictions for various reasons. Surviving fragments from their Gospel indicate their belief that — as Christ is the Passover sacrifice and eating the Passover lamb is no longer required — a vegetarian diet may or should be observed.

However, orthodox Christianity does not accept their teaching as authentic. Indeed, their specific injunction to strict vegetarianism was cited as one of the Ebionites' "errors". At a much later time, the Bible Christian Church founded by Reverend William Cowherd in followed a vegetarian diet. They have also sponsored and participated in many scientific studies exploring the impact of dietary decisions upon health outcomes.

Additionally, some monastic orders follow a vegetarian diet, and members of the Orthodox Church follow a vegan diet during fasts. The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, anti-vivisection and social purity.

The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends. According to Canon Law , Roman Catholics are required to abstain from meat defined as all animal flesh excluding water animals on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays of Lent including Good Friday.

Canon Law also obliges Catholics to abstain from meat on the Fridays of the year outside of Lent excluding certain holy days unless, with the permission of the local conference of bishops, another penitential act is substituted. The restrictions on eating meat on these days is solely as an act of penance and not because of a religious objection to eating meat.

Since the formation of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the s when the church began, wholeness and health have been an emphasis of the Adventist church, and has been known as the "health message" belief of the church.

Obedience to these laws means abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other animals proscribed as " unclean ". The church discourages its members from consuming alcoholic beverages , tobacco or illegal drugs compare Christianity and alcohol.

In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee , tea , cola , and other beverages containing caffeine. The pioneers of the Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet, and the "modern commercial concept of cereal food" originated among Adventists.

His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William. In both Australia and New Zealand , the church-owned Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is a leading manufacturer of health and vegetarian-related products, most prominently Weet-Bix.

Research funded by the U. National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives 4 to 10 years longer than the average Californian.

The research , as cited by the cover story of the November issue of National Geographic , asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet that is rich in nuts and beans.

He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity. Though there is no strict rule on what to consume and what not to, paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community, location, custom and varying traditions. Historically and currently, those Hindus who eat meat prescribe Jhatka meat, [] while some Hindus believe that the cow is a holy animal whose slaughter for meat is forbidden.

Some followers of Islam, or Muslims, chose to be vegetarian for health, ethical, or personal reasons. However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial due to conflicting fatwas and differing interpretations of the Quran.

Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing. The former Indian president Dr. Abdul Kalam was also famously a vegetarian.

Many non-vegetarian Muslims will select vegetarian or seafood options when dining in non- halal restaurants. However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole.

Followers of Jainism believe that all living organisms whether they are micro-organism are living and have a soul, and have one or more senses out of five senses and they go to great lengths to minimise any harm to any living organism. Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians but more devout Jains do not eat root vegetables because they believe that root vegetables contain a lot more micro-organisms as compared to other vegetables, and that, by eating them, violence of these micro-organisms is inevitable.

So they focus on eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation do not involve killing of a lot of micro-organisms. No products obtained from dead animals are allowed, because when a living beings dies, a lot of micro-organisms called as decomposers will reproduce in the body which decomposes the body, and in eating the dead bodies, violence of decomposers is inevitable.

Jain monks usually do a lot of fasting, and when they knew through spiritual powers that their life is very little, they start fasting until death. Some Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because the plants themselves and tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up.

While classical Jewish law neither requires nor prohibits the consumption of meat, Jewish vegetarians often cite Jewish principles regarding animal welfare , environmental ethics , moral character, and health as reasons for adopting a vegetarian or vegan diet. A number of medieval rabbis e. Many modern rabbis, by contrast, advocate vegetarianism or veganism primarily because of concerns about animal welfare, especially in light of the traditional prohibition on causing unnecessary "pain to living creatures" tza'ar ba'alei hayyim.

According to Genesis , consumption of meat was prohibited to human beings 1: Some advocates of Jewish vegetarianism, such as Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook , describe vegetarianism as an eschatological ideal to which all human beings must eventually return. Jewish vegetarianism and veganism have become especially popular among Israeli Jews.

In , Israel was described as "the most vegan country on Earth", as five percent of its population eschewed all animal products. Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastafari and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only " Ital " or natural foods, in which the matching of herbs or spices with vegetables is the result of long tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari. Ital cooking in its strictest form prohibits the use of salt, meat especially pork , preservatives, colorings, flavorings and anything artificial.

The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat, [] [] [] [] but leave the decision of diet to the individual. This is understood to have been for the political reason of maintaining independence from the then-new Muslim hegemony, as Muslims largely adhere to the ritualistic halal diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food Lobh , Greed involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life.

Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian? Environmental vegetarianism is based on the concern that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming , is environmentally unsustainable. According to a United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contribute on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation , climate change, and loss of biodiversity.

The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global.

In addition, animal agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gases. Livestock sources including enteric fermentation and manure account for about 3. Meat produced in a laboratory called in vitro meat may be more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat. In May , Ghent , Belgium, was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day".

Civil servants would eat vegetarian meals one day per week, in recognition of the United Nations' report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants.

In September , schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag "vegetarian day" too. Some groups, such as PETA , promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry. Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity.

According to the Worldwatch Institute , "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. Then drop back down into your deficit. I use this with clients to get over sticking point. Refeeds are another option. I am eating about to calories a day. What are my doing wrong? I would focus more on body composition changes while staying at your current weight.

I am a 47yr. So at the beginning of the year I decided to change things, Breakfast every day Oatmeal, banana, blueberries, coffee Cal. Lunch 3 to 4 oz of lean protein meat, chicken, fish and veggies about Cal. I also have been exercising regularly 30 min cardio 30min weights 5 days a week. That worked for the first 8 to 10 weeks dropped to Lbs. Great… Then I decide to hang out, a few week ago, went out friday, Sat, and sun. Monday I was at ….

I figured get back on the train and pull it all back, so got on the same routine since I did now 2 weeks later , what gives. But over time it should be trending down. I was under eating probably or under for a long time. I am very active.. I am 60 and had a gastric by pass and lost lbs but I met the love of my life who is s chief and gained back 50 lbs. Focus on consistency and getting engaged with the process so you can stay motivated long enough to see results. I am very overweight and have to take steroids for a medical condition.

I am not very mobile because of my medical conditions and I restrict my calorie intake to between cals a day but cannot loose weight. Could you help please. Only way to find out would be to slightly drop them and see what happens. I was eating I know I should be eating more but how do I increase calories without the scale going up? Hi tony — it sounds like many people struggle with this.

I, too, was undereating for a long time less than a day for over a year and working out tons some days hard and some days just walking 30 thousand steps. I understand logically that I need to eat more and do more effective workouts as I put my body into a bad place. But even in adding more calories back eating at now and have balanced my macros so I actually have some fat intake. The scale and inches increase literally every week. Perhaps you could create another post answering this question for those of us who still struggle.

How long could this process take? Is it ok to tackle adding calories in and scaling back workouts at the same time, or should we be trying one at a time? Our bodies do a great job of self-regulating how much to eat if you let it. See what you end up eating based on what your body tells you.

It might be higher or it might be lower than you think. But once you have that intake figured out you can adjust accordingly to manipulate your body weight. Eating so little everyday is kinda sad…. Hi buddy, do you mind if I share this information on my Facebook.? As a PT, I was explaining this very thing last night to a client…. I struggled with anorexia between the age of 14 and 16 and in those two years i had to gain about punds, to be at a Health weight.

I ended up gaining around 50 pounds, and i really dont feel feel good at this weight. I eat calories monday-friday, and i eat calories saturday and sunday, to have a calorie deficit in average.

I have NOT lost weight for a month or two, rather i have gained some pounds. I dont know what to do anymore… any helpfull advice? It would be greatly appriciated. Hi Helene, when people have struggled with eating disorders I tend to take a non calorie counting approach.

I find that focusing on the minutia of calories can lead to a resurfacing of emotions that caused the disorder in the first place. I would also work more on consistency day to day in your food intake and not worry about the calorie high days on the weekends.

Doing that will lower your food intake and could possible help with your weight loss. I even gain know, when I should be in a caloric deficit. Yes, I would work on consistency first. It takes practice but you have to learn to start trusting yourself around food again. I am 44 and weight and want to lose pounds.

I try to do SPIN class 3 times a week but have been slacking due to cold weather. I will continue my 3 times a week but how many calories do I eat to lose? Work on adherence and consistency with your eating and exercise. Choose exercise because you enjoy it, not because it gives you a weight loss effect. Get very consistent with that. Most people will lose weight once they do that with the majority of their meals.

And if not, it makes it really easy to adjust your food intake once that habit is in place. I found this article to be very interesting as I have recently been researching reverse dieting.

After restricting calories I am down to calories and maintain a weight of 44kg with light exercise. Yet my TDEE is My goal is to increase calories and build some muscle tone…is the idea to increase to your TDEE at once and then slowly increase from there? My GW is in between kg. Thank you for your help. TDEE can be changed, and reverse dieting is a way to do that. I would personally start with an extra calories for a few weeks to see how that works out for you. After that you can go in calorie jumps to give your metabolism a chance to adapt.

Do you recommend adding the to total of or adding it to the making it ? Should I listen to hunger signals? It just represents a certain amount of food to increase by, on average. Just consciously a little more. During reverse dieting it can be useful to break out the scale and calorie counting tools. But tape measurements, progress pics, and paying attention to how your clothes are fitting are also ways to monitor external changes.

All this information is great. But I am still a little confused. I have been on Nutrisystem and am currently on Jenny. Both seem to work the same way. I am about lb and looking to get to or They both put me on a calorie day with food. But where I get lost is the amount of exercise I need to do per week with this intake.

I was told that I need to do enough exercise to burn the I eat plus more calories to loose weight. I have been doing 1 hour of a treadmill 5 days a week. I guess where I am confused is what is the target calorie burn you need based on the calorie intake? Those two programs you mentioned are notorious for their calorie diets. In my opinion they cause more harm than good, although some lives have definitely been changed from them.

Exercise is one very small part of your energy expenditure. The goal is to get in a modest energy deficit. You take that feedback and adjust your energy balance. Hi Gina, I would just continue doing the things that helped you lose 9lbs. The weight gain when you started exercising is very common and is simply energy stores within the muscle increasing muscle glycogen.

This is very discouraging. Hard to say, Lisa. Double check your calorie tracking. That has a different set of circumstances to it. I could really use your input!

I had a son in January. For 5 months now o have not lost a single lb. I have a wedding in November and a dress fitting in July. She has info pertaining specifically to your situation, in addition to a calorie calculator you can use. Hi Tony, I am cm tall female, I weigh 48Kg, I have recently been diagnosed with hypothyroidism and take 25mg. I did not have hypothyroidism last year, its come about recently. I have suffered from Bulimia in the past more than 3 years ago.

Today I am fit and pretty strong i have been lifting weights for 3 years, I workout using heavy weights x4 weekly and I also do some cardio in my rest days. I can deadlift 80kg for a few reps. I track my macro-nutrients diligently, I eat daily g Protein, g carbs and 30g Fat calories. My diet includes lots of water, veg and fruit, along with lean meats. My fats come from healthy sources like avocados, coconut, nuts and seeds.

My problem is that I cannot seem to eat more than without gaining fat. Do you think my hypothyroidism is due to low long periods of low calorie intake? I have also had a couple of missed periods recently. If I select high fibre nutritious food then will leave me reasonably satisfied but there is no margin for even biscuits as a treat.

Shall I increase my calories slowly reverse diet and accept extra fat and hopefully muscle? But none of that really matters. At your current stats you are going to be hard pressed to lose any more weight, as your weight is already so low. What I would advise is to hang out at maintenance calories and push the strength training.

Focus less on your weight, regardless of whether it goes up or not, and more on your body composition. With more food will likely come more weight, but the fat gain should be minimal if any so long as you continue getting stronger and you take the calorie rise slowly.

I had knee surgery 4 years ago and was told I could never jog again. I really enjoyed running so I got depressed and gained over 30 pounds, to a whopping lbs!

For the past 5 weeks, my total weight loss was 11 pounds. I track my calories. I eat , depending on how much I burn with exercise. I started lifting lb weights with my legs. Why am I losing so slow? This week, I lost 0. When I was 9 months pregnant, I weighed lbs. How did I get here? Your advice is so helpful. I look forward to your response. Oops, I forgot to say that I exercise daily, alternating cardio and cardio plus weight lifting every other day. Hi Cynthia, 11lbs in 5 weeks is actually really good.

It takes time for the weight to come off. A pound a week for a year is 52lbs. Would you be happy with that? Thank you for responding to my question! I will use this time to work concurrently on my body image, as you suggested. Hard peels such as melons, winter squashes and pineapple should be washed before cutting into them to prevent contaminating the flesh. Lea has been in the nutrition industry for more than 30 years and was one of the founders of Longmont United Hospital's nutrition program in Boulder, Colorado.

She is a diabetes educator and focuses now on gluten-free diets and food intolerances. Lea's passion is combining the science of nutrition with the heart that it takes to change lifelong habits. Video of the Day. How to Develop a Taste for Vegetables. Facts About Fruits and Vegetables for Kids. Can You Eat the Skin on an Eggplant? Calories in a Vegetable Wrap.

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