Basic Tissue Types

Shocking Victory for Proponents of Alternative Medicine

How To Opt Out From ‘Smart’ Meters (Before & After Measurements)
Both these feats of health and youth preservation can be accomplished through comprehensive cellular support. Introduction to financial management for agricultural enterprises. Kelley is a dentist. Harvard School of Public Health. Pitman points out that tribe-building involves much more than just scheduling regular playdates.

UN Adopts “Education” Plan to Indoctrinate Children in Globalism

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Lockheed Martin is the principle sponsor and more than delegates and weapons company representatives are expected. Here, military men can make deals to buy all the naval hardware and other weaponry on display. This enormous injection of cash into the military is happening despite the NZDF's own evidence that "the country does not face a direct military threat in the foreseeable future".

The NZDF and those who support New Zealand's involvement in US wars, however, clearly do see a threat - a threat to their public support and, thus, continued operations. This is the real reason behind the Navy's 75th birthday. Their "celebration" is a stage-managed marketing event to secure public support for future wars, ever-increasing budgets and the recruitment of young men and women to fight and die.

The Navy says so itself: The New Zealand military has been continuously at war in Afghanistan alongside the US for 15 years; it is conducting regular training with the US Marine Corp, and it participates in the largest maritime war exercises in the world, the US-led Rimpac. Instead of leading us to complacency because the Nuclear-Free Act is still intact, Hager could have taken the opportunity to encourage a redoubling of the efforts of the thousands of people who worked to make New Zealand nuclear-free and the necessity of expanding that position.

That movement was brave, capable and courageous 30 years ago. It is a movement to truly celebrate, but its work remains unfinished. It is that work that is now urgently necessary. On an Animal Communication workshop it is explained that everyone can communicate with animals, we have all just forgotten how.

They teach you that interspecies communication is done via energy so language is never a barrier. Sometimes they will communicate through words, or sensation, or through images displayed in your mind. Tell them how much you love them and ask them if would they like to communicate with you. And remember to say please and thank you, animals apprectiate good manners. My animal guest teacher was a Staffordshire Bullterrier called Oscar.

He came into a calm room of thirty seated students, all eager to be able to communicate with this beautiful creature. His guardian not owner, we are merely guardians to our pets sat on a seat next to the teacher, whilst Oscar went around the room sniffing everybody, tail wagging.

He then went and settled on the rug in the middle of the room. I got two out of the four questions asked correct according to the answers the teacher received. She went through all the answers everybody got and then shared the answers that she had received. Later that day I was partnered up for another exercise with a young woman who also lived with Oscar, who had been accompanied by him in bed the night previous. I asked her, when you went to bed last night with Oscar, how were you feeling?

From that moment on I knew that animal communication is subjective. The afternoon consisted of a cat guest teacher called Marmalade who headed straight for a woman who was terrified of cats and sat on her for the rest of his session, attempting to cure her of her fear. Sadly, his efforts were lost. We did the same routine, asking Marmalade questions that his guardian could verify.

Afterwards, we worked with photographs of our beloved pets. How does that even work? Surely that is not possible but I found myself communicating perfectly accurately with Shoshy the cat via her photograph, using language that was completely alien to my usual syntax. It was a bizarre experience!

My first was a Hunter horse named Nick who was having problems with repetitive lameness. I told the guardian not to tell me which leg was affected as asking a question that can be confirmed by them is evidence to you and them that you are indeed in interspecies communication. Then after a moment, he drew my attention to his back left foot. I asked him did it hurt and suddenly I had a stabbing pain in my left foot on the underneath. I am happy to report Nick is now on glucosomine supplements and his problem is now relieved.

The next communication was with a dressage horse called Zodie. Her guardian is a gentle, beautiful young woman who teaches children to ride and does dressage competitions for fun.

I like this person a lot and she is very fond of her animals. The evening before I had read from cover to cover, the book my teacher had written on animal communication.

I went armed with some Maltesers, just in case I could bribe the horse into communicating with me. Her guardian told me when she and Zodie praticed dressage the horse was infallible but whenever they were in competetive situations the horse had awful meltdowns. Off I went to communicate with Zodie who was in an enclosure with two other horses where she was able to roam free and the others were stabled.

I entered their enclosure and introduced myself telepathically to Zodie, asking if she would like to communicate with me. She took one look at me and promptly walked off and hid in a stable!

Zodie popped her head out the stable inquisitively, and decided to come over and investigate the rustle of the sweet wrapper. I asked Zodie if she hurt anywhere and she showed me in my body a sensation of tightness on her right side flank and down the leg. I then asked her what was going wrong in her competions? I was immediately overwhelmed by the sensation of fear and nervousness, I was trembling all over and not able to catch my breath. I explained that Vicks just wanted to do the competitions for fun, it did not matter whether they won or not, they are just there to enjoy themselves.

When I told Vicks she wept, as did I. Animals are our greatest teachers in every way, when I have found it impossible to communicate they patiently show me how. I have predominantly had dogs and horses in my life. Dogs are my greatest love and proved the most difficult for me to access telepathically. But they always patiently teach me what I need to learn.

For me at least, it works better most times if I communicate with dogs through images. For example, Terry the Terrier was my best animal friend when I learned this amazing skill, but I could not communicate in the ways I found so easy with cats, horses, even insects! I was feeling very sorry for myself with my female cycle one day, and I knew that animals are able to heal us. So I was lying on my bed in agony with Terry looking at me curiously. Then I closed my eyes and imagined or I- magiced Terry lying on my belly facing me, and imagined what that would look like from his perspective.

He jumped up on the bed and lay down on my body facing me. Within minutes my pain had subsided and I had learned my biggest lesson so far. On another similar painful occasion I was cat-sitting and up in the middle of the night. I explained to one of the cats I was in pain and she promptly jumped on my lap and starting pawing at my belly arduously.

The pain was cured in a matter of minutes. I went to the 4, acre estate for an interview and met the Countess and her daughter and the five dogs. The dogs were really hectic with very few manners but all completely adorable. I was asked to sit down at the kitchen table and have coffee with my prospective new boss. I suddenly was drawn to looking behind me and saw the tiny Jack Russell Terrier who was sat staring at me next to the warm aga oven.

Her eyes grew wide and her jaw slackened with shock. On many occasions I would walk another three dogs with the pack, just me and eight dogs spending whole days outside connecting with each other, and all in connection with the Planetary Animal Mother, Gaia Sophia. I have even communicated with plants. I stood before a large group of nettles and asked them which nettle top I could take to cure my rash.

After a brief wait, and with no breeze whatsoever, one of the plants bowed down where the others stayed perfectly still. I make hedgerow medicines and if I cannot find the plant that I need I will ask to be taken to it.

When I collect the plants and harvest them I talk to them in gratitude and explain to them who the medicine is for and what ailments they will be addressing. It is a wonderful feeling to heal somebody, and even more sublime to be in such deep connection with nature. Often one finds that some animals are more open to telepathy with human animals than others.

No wonder when animals are so used to us thinking they are just dumb beasts, often treating them badly either through ignorance or patent cruelty. One such animal was a beautiful bay horse named Campbell. He was unfortunate enough to have a groom who was very ignorant and cruel, be his guardian. Dear, sweet Campbell, was always fielded alone which is a dire way for herd animals to exist.

He had no grass, no shade, no friends and I often found he had no water. I would go and see Campbell every day and his loneliness was palpable. I would try my best to be nice and gently convince the groom he needed more in his life but was always met with a brick wall of obtuse indifference.

The weather became unusually hot for English summertime that year and Campbell consistently had no water. One afternoon I found him in a different paddock next to two mares who were both in season, again with no shade and no water. I entered the paddock, and with nostrils flaring and making a strange and unfamiliar equine noise, he rushed towards me and literally buried his face in my torso for solace, remaining there for the next 10 minutes.

I was covered in his blood from his bites. I printed some information about colic prevention from the Blue Cross website and handed it to her. For one week Campbell had water every day and was wearing a fly protection rug and mask. The following week however, back in his lonely field on a day when the temperatures were soaring, I found Campbell once again without any water. I was very tired having worked all day and his field was half a mile away from my cottage.

I will never forget his response — he put his head in one empty bucket and looked at me, then he did the same with the other bucket and looked at me. Actions do indeed speak louder than words. I ferried 15 litres of water over to his field in a wheelbarrow of which he drank 5 litres straight away.

I hope Campbell and all the others have gone on to a better home or at least ended up with more competant caretakers. This is the only downside to communicating with animals. A horse who was scared of going to an Elite English School where spolied children can keep their horses at school.

A cat that was peeing in the house… I attended another two day workshop with the same teacher, day two was focussing on Gestalt Therapy and Remote Viewing which is basically learning to communicate and heal from long distance. Day two was Remote Viewing, so to learn we were partnered up with someone new to us that weekend and told to swap our pet photographs. The object of the exercise was, with permission of the other person, to access their house by communicating with their pet through the photograph.

Not quite believing I or anyone could do such a thing, I nevertheless introduced myself to Basil and asked him to show me around his house. We were encouraged to draw any images we saw or write down any words we received.

Suddenly I can see a kitchen, with a catflap in a pvc back door. Then I find myself travelling through the catflap into the garden where I can see a beige coloured paving slab path separating two lawns, and a wooden shed to the left with a tall wooden fence surrounding the modest garden.

Then we go back through the catflap and into the kitchen where he shows me not only the food he eats but the two different brands of food he gets fed, and his silver bowl. His favourite place to sleep in the kitchen is a beige chair, and then he takes me upstairs to the windowsill where he likes to sit and watch the world go by. Before I left the house he told me something about his guardians with a request attached.

I find myself showing a complete stranger the sketch I had drawn of her own house and garden. She told me Basil had been rescued with another cat and they were both house cats until the other cat had died. Since that day, Basil had been wandering out into the garden but never further than the fence.

She confirmed his food, the brands, his favourite place to sleep and his spot on the windowsill. We were both utterly flabbergasted.

I will add here, the animal communicators all explain that the reason we are able to use photographs to communicate is a Quantam Physics factor. I believe Quantam Physics is yet another scientific fraud we have been force fed, so I have no idea how communication through that medium works, just that it does.

On the same workshop I was partnered with a woman who gave me a photograph of her dead dog. I was able to ask and answer her four confirmation questions accurately, and then put her mind at rest that she had done the right thing in putting her beloved pet to sleep at the time that she did. They also say delightful things like our departed loved ones come with us on walks and watch over us.

Now I am aware of that idea I can feel their presence. I was asked to communicate with a new horse at a livery stable, she had got into the habit of throwing the boss off every time he rode her. And I want a purple rug. She also told me her saddle was very uncomfortable. When I left her stable one of the grooms who I had not met before, came over and asked me if I had been able to communicate. She then started to tell me where she thought the horse was in pain and my sketch matched exactly with her assertions.

I told Tom my findings and he was really unhappy with her name choice, but admitted the saddle they used was not one that had been specifically made for her. And he would change her rug to a purple one. Buttercup has now had the physical therapy she needed to help her ailments and has a new saddle especially fitted for her back, and has managed to keep Tom off the floor.

Anyone can learn to communicate with animals. Just think why does your dog know you are thinking about taking them for a walk almost before you have even formulated the thought?

But animal communication is right-hemisphere brain activity, understanding that the education system is a deliberate attempt to make you entirely left-hemisphered, will assist you enormously. Attending one of the many workshops on offer will be the start of your intraspecies communication and a new way of looking at all life and nature, even the planet we live on.

According to the ancient Pagan Mysteries, and the biography of the earth recovered from the Nag Hammadhi Codices by modern day Gnostic John Lamb Lash, Gaia Sophia is a living conscious being, our Planetary Animal Mother, who can communicate with you too.

Does your cat have you wrapped around her little fuzzy paws? New science unlocks the mysteries of human-animal bonding and how our animal companions manipulate us into loving them - for our good and theirs. People have a long history of living and bonding with domesticated animals. A recent genome study concluded that dogs may have been domesticated as far back as 34, years ago. Today, our animal companions are as beloved as ever with the American pet population expanding from about 40 million cats and dogs in to more than million in Roughly two-thirds of US households now include at least one pet.

Not only are pets on the rise, but the significance of our human-animal relationships seems to be deepening. A growing number of young adults are trading in their human partners for the four-legged kind.

Many report experiencing greater distress from the loss of a pet than from a breakup. In a recent poll, a surprising 38 percent of dog owners reported loving their pets more than their partners!

Our animal companions obviously bring lightness and joy to our lives, but science now reveals they may be bringing much more. The Magical Healing Powers of Animals. In addition to offering companionship, animals benefit people in a number of different ways.

For example, animals have developed special defenses over the millennia to ensure survival in the wild, and some of these have benefits for humankind.

Human wounds treated with NGF heal twice as quickly as untreated wounds. The purring of a cat can help mend broken bones and soft tissue injuries because they purr at 20 to 50 Hertz, a frequency range found to promote tissue healing. And a protein from the venom of the Malayan pit viper is being used in Europe to treat strokes and blood clots. Science shows that pet owners are reaping an amazing number of health benefits, including the following: For children, family pets offer unique benefits, both physically and emotionally.

Dogs can forestall the development of allergies in children raised with them. The emotional benefits are even more profound. Caring for a pet teaches children compassion, self-esteem, and responsibility for the care of another, as well as improving cognitive skills, mitigating stress, and numerous other benefits.

Children with autism are sometimes better able to interact with animals, and this may actually improve their ability to interact with people. Science shows cats are especially helpful to autistic children, increasing their social interactivity and improving communication skills, tactile and eye contact, smiling and laughter.

Oxytocin Creates Friends with Benefits. Why do cats and dogs hold this almost-magical power over humans? Recent discoveries are beginning to provide an answer: A recent groundbreaking study was the first to identify a hormonal bonding effect between humans and other species, which may help to explain how dogs became domesticated thousands of years ago. According to the study, when your dog looks into your eyes, he activates the same hormonal response as an infant. Produced by the hypothalamus, oxytocin is the hormone responsible for mother-infant bonding, flooding each with feelings of happiness, trust and well being.

In addition to its role in bonding and relationships, oxytocin confers physical health benefits as well, including reduced pain and inflammation, which could explain some of the health benefits of pet ownership outlined above.

But oxytocin may explain only part of our connection with dogs. A prior study found dogs to be sensitive to human social cues, such as the intention to interact with them when making eye contact.

According to Medical Daily:. Dogs are not the only species casting oxytocin spells on humans - cats are taking full advantage as well. A recent study found that cats attach to humans as social partners, not just for the sake of obtaining food.

This research is the first to show in detail that cat-human relationships are essentially identical to human-human ones, at least biochemically, with cats frequently stepping into roles of surrogate children in nurturing homes. This of course will not be new information to cat lovers. Petting a cat is found to produce an immediate oxytocin release in both cat and human - but if that human is a woman, the effects may be far more pronounced.

This study and others confirm that, while cats have plenty of male admirers, women initiate contact with their kitties much more often than men, and vice versa.

Female owners also have more intense relationships with their cats, and cats especially adore - and manipulate - their ladies.

Cats are cashing in on human maternal instinct! Regardless of whether or not we humans are being manipulated by our animal friends, the benefits of sharing our homes with them cannot be denied.

Science has proven that if you want to live a longer, healthier, happier life - and raise your children in an environment that cultivates compassion and responsibility - then adopting a pet may be just the prescription. The result of the June 23 referendum will have far-reaching consequences for politics, the economy, defense, migration and diplomacy in Britain and elsewhere.

Bloomberg tracker indicates 3. The recent murder of Jo Cox is an indication that the anti-Brexit camp are so desperate, they believe they could easily use it to reverse the sentiment of the people, or at the very least, they could use the murder to mask the rigging of the votes on June 30, just like they employed fear mongering during the last Scotland referendum.

Scotland Referendum Fraud Exposed. The bigger picture, however, will always be that the Sheeples are subjected to constant flow of distraction to preoccupy them with issues that that have nothing to do with real freedom.

There must be a more decisive action from those who see things as they truly are. We believe that this is just a conservative figure. We can avoid using drugs, defeat any viral attack and scaremongering, like the Zika virus, easily by knowing how to build our own comprehensive antiviral system.

Find more about it here. Mr van Wyk makes a good point. Don't hold your breath for a boycott. Google and Facebook command a huge share of New Zealander's online attention. Spark would be cutting off its nose to spite its face. Australia and the UK have introduced so-called "Google tax" measures against such behaviour. The Spark boss says doing the same here would level the playing field.

The abandonment of our nuclear free status immediately places our sovereign nation at risk in the incidence of a nuclear war and believe me when I say this is the madness that is driving Washington policy right now. Wake up readers to the fact that right now the U. These insane people are agents of the U. That is why any move to embrace more U. The Yekuana Indians were unlike any people Liedloff had ever encountered. They seemed universally happy and fulfilled.

Their children, especially, were remarkably calm and independent. In the entire time she stayed with them, she witnessed no sibling rivalry, no whining, and almost no crying, fussing or tantrums among their infants and small children.

She was amazed to see older children and teens confidently performing difficult tasks and making mature decisions, without the defiance or recalcitrance so common in Western adolescents. In her own words:. Liedloff observed that in this culture, as in many other indigenous societies around the globe, children were treated very differently than in Western cultures. She began to develop a theory of human social development based on her observations.

According to her, every human being is born with an inborn expectation to undergo certain natural social experiences. These begin with being held immediately after birth, and an extended in-arms phase in early infancy.

Several, like babywearing, extended nursing, and co-sleeping are, if not wholly embraced by Western society, at least becoming better known and more accepted. However, most Western parents who follow these practices agree that their families are still far from experiencing the ideal of human contentedness that Liedloff describes in her book. In other words, once the honeymoon of infancy is over, what then?

If the child errs, he should be gently instructed to change his behavior, but he should never be judged negatively as a person because of his mistakes. The second Continuum concept to keep in mind is that the child should not be the center of attention. Neither, however, should he be excluded from adult society. In Yekuana society, Liedloff observed that adults were available to the child as needed, but focused primarily on their own activities, not on their role as parents.

This approach lets the child learn by direct observation and to begin participating in adult activities as he is ready, without the pressure of being in the spotlight. Any grown-up lady that pleads with a 4-year-old is not to be relied on. What would you like to eat? Can you find the spoons? Keep in mind, though, that taking the lead is not the same thing as taking control over your child. The parents Liedloff observed never forced a child to do chores.

They simply modeled the behavior, and made sure the tools - like a child-size grater - were available to the child. When a child showed an interest, she was allowed to participate as long as she wanted to. It was simply expected that she would naturally want to learn how to do the tasks she observed the adults doing.

By the time they are old enough to be truly helpful, Liedloff noted that continuum-raised children will simply and quietly obey requests for help from adults, reciprocating the respect they had been shown when they were little. This leads us to the third principle: It is easy for Stone Age parents to be available to their children without making them the center of attention.

After all, they live where they work, and their children spend most of their time freely playing with other children, both younger and older than they are. In fact, every person in their culture is able to model older individuals, and mentor younger individuals in turn.

This allows for smooth passage from one stage of life to the next, and reduces or eliminates friction between generations. In a society which divides its tribes into isolated nuclear families, where adults must often work outside the home, where children are not typically welcomed into the workplace, and where, from preschool to nursing home, our age segregation practices border on the extreme, is it even possible to offer our children - and ourselves - the experiences we apparently need to become truly fulfilled human beings?

Perhaps not to the extent that the Yekuana could. But just as many Western parents have resurrected the practices of babywearing and co-sleeping, why not reclaim the tribal experience as well? Whether through conscious decisions or instinct, many parents are attempting to do just that - resurrect something of the primal, tribal human experience.

In their own ways, they are seeking opportunities to connect with other families in ways that are more natural, organically developing and holistic. For some families, tribe-building is as simple as staying in place or moving back to live close to extended family.

A recent PEW study revealed that 43 percent of young people ages 18—31 are now living with their parents or other kin. This includes a growing number of families with young children, according to Carmen Wong-Ulrich of Baby Center Financial. Granted, this is happening primarily as a result of economic pressure, rather than the desire for a more natural social structure.

However, many of these families are discovering benefits to this arrangement beyond financial relief. Other parents report increased feelings of security, carpooling and other shared duties made easier, built-in babysitters, and family bonding as benefits of living with or near family members.

But for the majority of us, living near family is just not an option. Creating Your Own Tribe. It the article, Pitman describes her relationship with her friend Vicki. Starting when their first babies were infants, the two would get together and help each other with household chores or prepare meals for both families to enjoy, while their kids had the benefit of unstructured play time with adults who remained in close proximity, but engaged in their own adult activities.

Pitman points out that tribe-building involves much more than just scheduling regular playdates. Clean house, work on your car, do projects together, garden, prepare meals, or start a business together.

She also cautions not to be too picky about whom you form your tribe with. Just like family, the people you find available may have some qualities that differ from your ideals. However, once the children reach school age, time spent together in this way often diminishes. Homeschooling families have a unique advantage in this regard. In situations where homeschooling occurs between and around running a home-based business, children also get to observe and learn firsthand how the adult world operates in a way that was once a normal part of growing up, but is now no longer available to the vast majority of modern children.

That said, many homeschoolers still find their lives increasingly dominated by schedules and goals, especially as children grow older.

If a tribal experience is truly your ideal, you might find yourself drawn to at least partial unschooling. If you are brave and resourceful, you might consider organizing your own school or other institution. This is what Natalie Cronin did. She started her home daycare, Under the Tinker Tree, out of a desire to provide her own children with an experience more closely resembling her ideals than would otherwise be possible. Luckily, her vision resonated with others in her community.

Finding a local Rudolf Steiner school might be a good alternative. Keep in mind that it is extremely difficult to change already existing conventions. Noelle adds that there are things you can do to protect your child from the less Continuum-friendly aspects of school life. You may find yourself in the position of wanting to introduce elements of modern tribalism into an existing organization. This is challenging, but not impossible. Then, frame your suggestions in a way that helps them meet existing wants and needs.

To some, the ultimate in modern tribe building may well be to start an intentional community based on Continuum and other natural living concepts. However, a quick search reveals very few existing intentional communities that openly base their values on Continuum ideals. Heart-Culture Farm near Eugene, Oregon, is one. Surely, there are enough families interested in following an attachment parenting lifestyle to warrant a larger number of communities specifically designed to support it?

Yet most intentional communities are very specific as to what is and is not acceptable behavior. Noelle recounts a personal intentional community experience which may shed some light on this question:.

It led to a fairly sizable group of people from all over the world getting together for an organizational meeting. We accidentally experienced tribe for about two days.

We had this gathering in my hometown, Portland, Oregon. People had different travel schedules, and a number of people got there a few days before the big meeting. They camped out in our yard and we kind of had this village we created in our yard, and we were all just waiting and very optimistic.

So we actually had this tribal experience, and I can only say it was glorious. It was just wonderful, the feeling of this expanded social circle where everyone is just sort of flowing together. The children had all these choices [of playmates]. And we were living that way for a couple of days while we were waiting for this meeting. Then the meeting happened and everyone brought their agendas with them, and their particular attachments that things had to be a certain way, and we started to lose some of that being in the moment with each other.

Now it had to be right vs wrong…. We might have weathered that, but I think ultimately a lot of us were recovering our humanity.

But then you have a whole bunch of wounded people who are trying to lift each other up. And I could see that in this particular project, including myself and my wife—we definitely lacked the skill set to do that. Noelle suspects that being well funded could help such a project overcome this issue by allowing participants the security to work out their differences.

Given this experience and others, it seems that this elusive tribal experience is not something to be sought as a goal, but something experienced naturally when people come together without goals or expectations, simply in the enjoyment of being together. What about the Internet? Many people these days are spending increasing amounts of time and energy on the Internet in hopes of connecting to like-minded souls.

The Continuum concept is about more than the sequence of human development. Children, especially, need to experience the world holistically through their senses - the real world with all their senses, not just a pared-down, wired-up virtual semblance with no taste or touch or smell. And believe it or not, we adults need this too. Seeking Your Own Tribe.

Cronin, Noelle and Pitman all offer excellent suggestions for developing the kind of comfort with ourselves and others that appears to be a prerequisite for a Continuum lifestyle.

Reconnect with the natural world - even if you live in a city, just going for a walk and passing a tree is connecting and centering.

Spend a lot of time together. Choose options that lead to partnership rather than separation and control. Gradually, as the protein metabolism of the body improves, the muscle tone of the bowel becomes normal and thorough evacuation is possible without the aid of the enema.

Essentially, the coffee enemas help the liver perform a task for which it was not designed — that of elimination in 1 or 2 years the accumulated wastes from many years of living in ignorance of the laws of nature. At first, most people dislike enemas and have psychological barriers against them. Ignorance of the purpose and function of the enema, as well as misunderstanding of the proper procedure for taking it bring about this aversion.

I have observed, however, that the persons most opposed to enemas soon reverse their prejudices and become the most avid supporters of them!

In many cases, the enema relieves distress and gives a sense of well being and cleanliness never before experienced. The proper removal of toxins and debris from the colon is absolutely essential in all conditions of disease and ill health.

Enemas using coffee in the afternoon or evening may interfere with sound sleep. If enemas are needed at these times, many patients prefer to use only warm pure water omitting the coffee. But it is better to take coffee at these times also, and a weaker solution to permit sleep would be better than not using coffee at all.

Just before bedtime each day, make a pot of coffee 1 quart. Unplug coffeepot and allow to cool to room temperature. It is best to arise early enough each morning to allow time to take the enema in a relaxed, unhurried state. The coffee must be regular, non-instant, non-decaffeinated coffee. Aluminum or Teflon should not be used at any time! We have found the coffee that is unboiled or prepared via the "drip method" is preferable. Use 3 to 4 tablespoons of ground coffee to 1 quart of Filtered Reverse Osmosis RO or distilled water.

Any water that enters into the body should be RO filtered or distilled water. Avoidance of city water supplies always chlorinated, which has been strongly linked to hardening of the arteries, and often fluoridated, which has been strongly linked to cancer and thyroid disease is most essential to removing stress from the kidneys.

Pure RO filtered water or distilled water should be used for cooking and drinking — and even for preparing enemas, since a significant portion of the enema water may be absorbed and filtered through the kidneys.

Even if one has a well, it should not be assumed safe. Often toxic amounts of copper, cadmium, and lead are picked up from the plumbing even if the well is pure. If one distills water from a city supply, one must remember that certain hydrocarbon contaminants have a lower boiling point than that of water. The distiller should have a valve to permit their escape as they gasify.

If not, they will concentrate in the distilled water and will need to be removed by filtering through activated charcoal. An acceptable Distilled Water System: H 2 0 Only, Inc. Filters breed deadly bacteria.

If your water supply is dirty a filter will get dirty in less than 30 days — A filter should be changed every 30 days even if your water supply is clean. If a coffee enema makes a person jittery, shaky, nervous, nauseated, or light-headed, the coffee solution is too strong.

The amount of coffee can be adjusted from 1 teaspoon to 4 tablespoons per quart of water as tolerance level permits. The high, retention coffee enema should consist of 1 quart of coffee, held for 15 minutes. Some people, children especially, can take and retain only a pint 2 cups of enema solution at a time. If this is the case, one must take 2 enemas each time, one right after the other, and hold each for 15 minutes as directed. Upon rising each morning plug in the coffeepot for a few seconds to bring coffee to body temperature; unplug and take the morning coffee enema.

Before the enema do some form of mild exercise if possible, such as walking briskly. If one is extremely debilitated and weak, this step will of course need to be omitted until strength returns. Attempt a normal bowel movement. The enema is much more effective if the colon has been evacuated. In many cases, not enough bulk collects to instigate a normal bowel movement.

When no normal bowel movements are forthcoming, the enema cleans the colon adequately. After the normal bowel movement, if one is forthcoming, or before taking the coffee retention enema, most people find that taking an enema with 1 quart of warm RO filtered water or distilled water is very helpful do not retain this enema. This procedure begins the cleansing of the colon, removing large particles of residue and most of the gas. When it is completed, the coffee retention enema may be taken. The warm water enema is optional and does not need to be taken if the coffee enema can be retained for the desired period.

Place 1 quart of coffee in your enema bag or bucket. You may use a Fleet enema bag, which is a disposable large volume plastic bag, an over-the-counter item from the local pharmacy or hospital supply outlet. This enema bag lasts about 2 years. The enema tip on the end of the hose is not adequate to give a "high enema. This colon tube is a soft flexible rubber-like tube around 30 inches in length.

It follows the curves and flexure of the colon. The colon tube is usually inserted about 12 to 20 inches into the rectum. It is difficult today to find a colon tube. However, a plastic rectal catheter or tube about 18 inches long may be ordered from your pharmacy as an over-the-counter item. The enema bag should not be over 36 inches higher than the rectum. If it is placed too high, the coffee runs into the colon too fast and under too much pressure, causing discomfort.

There are several positions that can be used while inserting the colon tube. There is also the knee-chest method, with chest and knees on the floor and buttocks in the highest position possible. Most people, however, find it easiest to lie on the left side until the solution is out of the bag or bucket. The enema should never be taken while sitting on the toilet or standing. Often, if a little bit of the solution is allowed to flow into the colon as the tube is being inserted, one may comfortably get past these kinks.

If a kink bends the tube too much and stops the flow of liquid, then the tube can be inserted only as far as it will go, still allowing the liquid to flow freely. Sometimes, if one hits a kink that stops the flow of the liquid completely, the tube can be pulled out slowly just to the point where the solution is felt flowing again. Frequently, the tube can be pushed back in, past the turn that previously stopped the liquid.

Regardless of the position used up to this point, one should now lie on the left side for at least 5 minutes, then on the back for another 5 minutes, then on the right side for at least 5 minutes.

Those who have excessive gas may leave the tube in the colon with the hose clamp open. This allows gas to escape through the enema container. Frequently, the coffee will go in and out of the enema bag or bucket until the gas is relieved. After the enema is retained for 15 minutes or longer, it may be expelled. If you find you have a lot of gas and it is difficult to retain the enema, try putting 2 tablespoons of blackstrap molasses into your coffee solution.

If you get a sudden gas bubble causing an urge to expel the solution, breathe very fast through your nose using your abdominal muscles like a bellows. This usually helps the colon wall break up the gas bubble. If you find that a little coffee leaks out, place an old towel under your buttocks. Occasionally, the intestinal tract will become obstructed. Usually under these circumstances, no food or feces will come through. After a few days, one becomes extremely nauseated and starts vomiting.

He or she will be very sick and will normally run a high temperature. This should be watched quite carefully, for in such cases immediate emergency treatment is absolutely necessary. One should never allow themselves to become extremely toxic.

But, in order to distinguish between a healing toxic reaction and an intestinal obstruction, as soon as nausea or vomiting develops and no food is passing through, all supplements and food should be stopped for 5 days. Water and juice may be taken during this time. If there is no vomiting, food is passing through, and the temperature remains below degrees, the diet and normal routine may be resumed, as one may assume there is no obstruction.

If, during the 5 days off the supplements with no solid food intake, one begins to vomit and has abdominal pain with high temperature, the physician should be consulted so that he or she can check for intestinal obstruction. The kidneys are vital organs of detoxification. They filter approximately 4, quarts of blood daily. Many drugs are eliminated through the kidneys, especially the common pain-killing drugs that can be extremely damaging to these organs. Such drugs include aspirin, phenacetin and acetominophen.

The kidneys should be flushed each day with liberal quantities of fluid, either RO filtered water, distilled water or fresh fruit and vegetable juices preferably organic.

Parsley tea is excellent for strengthening the kidneys. Those with kidney problems should avoid ordinary commercial teas and coffee as a beverage. Herbal teas are acceptable. For those who tend to retain fluid, watermelon is an excellent diuretic. If the melon is organically grown, the rind should be juiced and sipped first thing in the morning and then the red fleshy part of the fruit may be eaten.

Two mornings a week, one may take the juice of a whole lemon in warm RO filtered water or distilled water as a diuretic citrus should not be used more than 2 days a week, as it tends to upset the calcium-phosphorus metabolism if used more frequently. Shavegrass or horsetail tea is a good diuretic and also good for the skin and hair. An excellent diuretic salad may be made by combining cabbage and onions — finely sliced — with crushed raw garlic, parsley, and herbs like sage, cumin, and juniper berries, if available.

Cover this mixture with very hot RO filtered water or distilled water and place a lid over it for 10 minutes.

Drain the mixture the liquid is good to save for soup bases, grains, etc. It can be eaten as is or refrigerated first. It can also be mixed with other salads. In kidney disease the protein intake should be limited and extra vitamins and minerals taken. Life is dependent upon the adequate exchanges of gases in the lungs.

The most significant are the removal of carbonic acid and the flow of oxygen into the blood. The lungs give off many other gaseous wastes. No amount of toothpaste or mouthwash will remove it for long, since it comes from the bloodstream.

One can be assured, however, that this is only a phase and that the poisons are leaving the body. Mucus-forming food should be avoided if mucus is a problem. These are principally dairy products, with the exception of butter and cream, and baked flour products. Anti-mucus foods such as raw onions and garlic, cayenne pepper, freshly ground black pepper, fresh ginger, and horseradish should be eaten liberally.

Most people overlook the skin as an organ of detoxification. But it is sometimes called "the third kidney," since many of its functions in fluid and electrolyte balance are similar to those of the kidneys.

When great amounts of poisons flood the body, all systems are overloaded and this function of the skin is sorely needed. As the skin is utilized, all sorts of eruptions, odors, colors, and blemishes may appear.

These conditions will disappear as the body becomes purified. One can quickly assess the relative efficiency of elimination through the skin by looking at his iris the colored portion of the eye. The skin is represented by the outermost part of the iris. If it is very dark and dense, the condition is called a "scurf rim" in iridology, and it means that the skin is relatively blocked as an organ of elimination.

To open it up, skin brushing before a shower and vigorous use of a loofah sponge in the shower are recommended. A good quality vegetable-bristle, skin brush should be purchased from the health food store or pharmacy. One should brush up the front of the body and down the back, over all exposed skin surfaces, until a warm glow is felt. Then one should take a warm shower and rub briskly with a loofah sponge available in most health food stores to remove the layers of dead skin loosened by the brushing.

We have found it best to take a hot shower each morning. Castile or other pure soap should be used — but in a minimal amount, since heavy soaping will wash all the valuable skin oils off and can cause the skin to overproduce oil in order to compensate.

The hair should be shampooed frequently with a non-chemical soap or shampoo, which can be found in health food stores. At the end of the shower, one should turn the water to cool, then to warm. As one becomes accustomed to the temperature change, he or she may go from hot to cold and back several times.

This exercises the tiny muscles in the skin, which control dilation and contraction of the pores. As they become stronger, they can respond better to the physiological demands of the body. After the shower, one can sit in a tub of water with a cup of apple cider vinegar added, to restore and strengthen the acid mantle of the skin.

Afterward, the body should be dried and rubbed briskly with a towel until a warm glow is felt. Epsom salt baths may also be used to help draw toxins out of the skin.

These baths are especially beneficial if one is going through a "healing crisis" and is especially toxic and feeling bad. Such a bath works best after the skin brushing and use of a loofah sponge.

A tub is filled with warm to hot water and 4 or more cups of Epsom salt are dissolved in it. This bath is quite relaxing and good for tense, sore muscles, and may be taken as often as needed. Every fourth night the cancer patient should be rubbed from head to toe with a mixture of olive oil and castor oil in equal parts.

Then a hot soaking bath should be taken for 15 minutes to allow the oil to penetrate. This is followed by going to bed under heavy covers for about one hour to sweat the poisons out. Then a cleansing shower is taken. This may be discontinued after three months. Salt-water irrigation of the nostrils is very helpful with nasal mucus and sinus congestion alike. Mouth breathing places incalculable stress on the lungs, nearly equivalent to that of cigarette smoking if one lives in urban pollution.

To irrigate the nostrils, dissolve 1 teaspoon of sea salt in 16 ounces of warm water in a bowl of appropriate size. While bending forward, block one nostril and place the other below the water surface in the bowl.

The water should be gently pulled up the nostril until one can taste the salty mixture trickling to the back of the throat; then it should be blown out. This should be repeated with the other nostril and alternated several times. Breathing exercises should follow the cleansing of the nostrils. If done on a regular basis, these yield tremendous benefits. Deep breathing yields a multitude of benefits through maximum use of lung capacity.

Rapid breathing is an energizing exercise, which promotes flow of energy into the lungs and digestive organs. It should be done before meals, after being in a stuffy room, or whenever a lift is needed. Alternate-nostril breathing has a calming effect on the nervous system. It can be used effectively to overcome anxiety states and insomnia, and sometimes to relieve headaches.

Breath is the external manifestation of our life force. It is our very life. We can live for a while without food or drink, but not without breath. In almost every case of cancer, particularly those cases of long standing, the protein from the muscles has been used to maintain life.

In other words protein metabolism has been so poor that the body had to take protein from the muscles and, to a very great degree, the muscles have been consumed. After the cancer is destroyed, the muscles begin to rebuild. This takes approximately three years. If the muscles are exercised strenuously during this time a hernia may develop.

For this reason we have found it best to replace strenuous exercise with a brisk walk at least once a day for three years following therapy. About the year BC Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, made the statement, "Your food shall be your medicine and your medicine shall be your food.

This is particularly true when it comes to the successful treatment of the cancer patient. It never ceases to amaze me at the number of learned as well as ignorant persons who scoff when diet is mentioned.

They all seem to believe that no matter what is placed into the body, by some magical process, it makes for perfect health. Yet these same people are very fastidious and concerned about what, how and how much food is fed to their pedigreed dogs and cats and their registered cattle and horses.

It is ironic that they cannot see that their own health is equally dependent upon a proper balanced nutritional process. From the first printing of this book in we have called our diet the "Kelley Almond Diet" because the principal protein is almond and vegetable protein. Raw almonds are a very good source of protein and may be used as directed: A mixture of raw almonds, cashews, pecans, filberts, Brazil nuts, walnuts, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds is recommended to supplement protein during the first six months when meat proteins are severely restricted.

These should be eaten any time up to 1: Cashew nuts are desirable, especially if the patient is also suffering from hypoglycemia low blood sugar. Nuts, seeds, and grains should be stored in closed containers in a very cool location. Refrigeration is best if one has the space. Some enzyme researchers do not recommend the use of raw seeds or nuts, claiming that the enzyme inhibitors in the seeds or nuts make proper digestion difficult. But if nuts and seeds are chewed well or soaked overnight in RO filtered or distilled water the activity of enzyme inhibitors is greatly reduced or nullified.

Should you have difficulty chewing whole raw almonds, you may substitute two tablespoons of pure raw almond or sesame seed butter. We have maintained throughout this treatise that cancer is nothing more than a pancreatic enzyme deficiency. The greatest cause of this deficiency is the amount of cooked protein mutated amino acids fed into the body.

The pancreas simply cannot manufacture enough enzymes to digest the large volumes of pasteurized milk and cheese and cooked meat we eat and have any enzymes left over to digest the foreign protein we know as cancer. If people would not eat protein after 1: However, a cancer patient should never give up all protein, as they might be tempted to do when they first learn that too much protein in the diet prevents the pancreas from ridding the body of cancer.

The pancreatic enzymes themselves consist of protein amino acids , and unless the body is fed adequate protein, the pancreatic enzyme production will stop and the cancer tissue will make a very rapid growth.

The total withdrawal from protein has been the fallacy of many cancer diets, such as the "Grape Cure. Yet, over prolonged periods of total abstinence from protein, the pancreas fails.

Proper balance and regulated intake is the answer. It is not only imperative that the correct kind and quantity of protein be eaten, but of equal importance, it must be taken at a specific time.

We have found that regular proteins should be taken at breakfast and lunch only. When this is strictly observed the pancreatic enzymes, used in digestion of protein, are used only about 6 hours.

This leaves 18 hours for production of pancreatic enzymes to digest cancer tissue. By mid-morning they are ravenous and have a candy bar, peanuts, doughnuts or sweet rolls with a soft drink or coffee. For lunch they normally have a roast beef sandwich, or chicken fried in "trans-fatty acid" vegetable oil, or a hamburger. By mid-afternoon they are again hungry and have been attacked by low blood sugar, so they perk themselves up with coffee or a soft drink. Dinner consists of a charbroiled steak, or a piece of roast beef or other cooked meat with white flour gravy and cooked-to-death vegetables.

For desert there is ice cream or pie a la mode with another glass of milk. It is impossible for the pancreas to produce enough enzymes under these conditions. Eggs are an unusually good source of protein — well balanced and the standard by which all protein is evaluated. They have all the essential amino acids in proper proportions. The cancer patient may have two eggs preferably raw each day at anytime.

Proper preparation of eggs is of vital importance. The eggs must be heated in the shell. This destroys an enzyme just inside the membrane under the shell that prevents the biotin in the egg from functioning normally.

When biotin functions properly, it greatly reduces the cholesterol risks of eating eggs. After preheating before cracking them, the eggs may then be eaten, as you prefer them. There was a group of research doctors and dentists who, for at least a dozen years, had eaten two eggs daily properly prepared as above , as part of a well-balanced nutritional program.

Tests conducted on these people showed no increase in cholesterol. In fact, there was a significant decrease in the blood serum cholesterol level of each individual. Misconceived beliefs of the orthodox medical world about eating cholesterol-containing foods have caused countless people to be unduly alarmed about cholesterol levels and the associated possibility of heart attacks.

Liver is a wonderful energy food and cannot be surpassed as a blood builder. It is especially crucial for leukemia and lymphoma patients, as their blood is unusually weak. However, all cancer patients can benefit from the intake of raw liver before noon each day.

In the mid s, when Dr. Kelley was told he was in the final stages of pancreatic and liver cancer, he found that raw liver blended into carrot juice gave him strength when everything else he ate made him feel ill. Raw organic, antibiotic-free and hormone-free liver contains a multitude of live enzymes, amino acids and other intrinsic factors that science has not yet identified, which are destroyed when the liver is cooked.

References to "intrinsic" or "unidentified" food factors are fairly common in nutritional literature. They result from clinical reactions, which cannot be linked to known nutrients.

Raw liver for cancer patients is an excellent example of powerful therapeutic, but unexplained, effects. There are no supplements or drugs that can take the place of raw liver; none are in any way comparable in their effects. Eating raw liver ensures thorough digestion and the replacement of expended nutrients, promoting excellent health. Raw liver is best if it is organic, antibiotic-free, hormone-free and not irradiated.

However, if this type of raw liver is unavailable, fresh muscle meat, steaks and ground, are acceptable even if you buy them at regular markets. Organically grown and not irradiated is always more nutritious and preferable. At least 3 and no more than 6 heaping tablespoons of raw liver should be taken daily. Chewing the liver is best for proper digestion. However, if masticating it is too objectionable, it will digest well even swallowed whole, if it is sliced into small enough cubes, and if adequate hydrochloric acid and enzymes are taken.

One can then use plastic sandwich bags, putting 3 to 6 tablespoons of frozen cubed liver in each bag and storing them in the freezer for daily eating.

This frozen liver may be chewed or swallowed whole, followed by a sip of juice if desired. Some prefer to allow the liver to thaw and then to place a spoonful at a time in the mouth and chew it or swallow it whole with a sip of juice.

The cancer patient will want to give up cooked and commercially produced meat such as beef, pork, lamb and fowl immediately except for raw liver — see above. Cooked meat is harmful for the cancer patient, as the very same enzymes used in its digestion are needed for fighting and digesting the cancer.

All natural, self-made enzymes your body can produce should be used to fight the cancer. Commercial meat should be avoided for another reason; it has a high female sex hormone content. For commercial reasons most animals, especially beef and fowl produced in the United States have been fed large quantities of hormones.

If and when one does go back to eating meat, it will be extremely wise to make every effort to find a source that can provide meat, which has been produced without chemical feed, hormones, antibiotics, and pesticide residues. At this time not less than sixty grams of protein daily should be included in the diet. Raw seeds and sprouts are good foods for cancer patients, and may be eaten after 1: We freely use brown sesame, sunflower and pumpkinseeds.

Many people enjoy sprouted seeds, such as alfalfa and mung beans, buckwheat, wheat and soybeans. The most "living foods" are sprouted seeds.

When seeds are soaked in water, their protective enzyme inhibitors are removed and the enzymes, which have been "asleep," become active, and in three days the nutritional values of the seeds are increased tremendously. The seeds also become much easier to digest. For the best in nutrition, be sure to eat your sprouts raw.

Eat as many as you desire. Dry beans of all types are a good source of food for the cancer patient, and may be used two or three times a week at anytime of the day.

The second most important phase of our cancer diet is that of fresh raw juices. At least one quart of carrot and one pint of celery juice should be taken each day. As much other fresh raw vegetable juice in volume may be taken as desired. One should consider alfalfa, beet, cabbage, cucumber, dandelion, endive, lettuce, parsley, potato, spinach, and turnip juice. Vegetable juices are the builders of the body. Juice is better than the whole vegetable because so much energy is used to digest the whole vegetable.

Juice has a proper balance of vitamins and minerals in a concentrated solution. We recommend that the juice be made fresh and used immediately.

Fruit and Fruit Juices Fresh and Raw. Fresh raw fruit and fruit juices are the cleansers of the body. The cancer patient may eat as much as desired of fresh raw fruit or fresh fruit juices. Small amounts of dried unsulfered fruit may also be taken.

The cancer patient may eat, in addition to his fresh raw vegetable and fruit juices, all the fresh fruit and fresh raw salad he or she can hold. These are good for lunch or dinner meals. The body needs bulk, as it is necessary to keep the digestive tract in good working order. Unrefined, organic flaxseed oil may be used as salad dressing see page 22, Formula F. Whole Grain Cereal Phase Three. We have found that it is desirable in building the body to eat a mixture of raw whole grain cereals for breakfast each morning.

Mix together well in a large container one pound of each of the grains and nuts below. Store in refrigerator if too large a quantity is mixed it will keep in a cool, dark pantry.

After two years this porridge may be cooked as in oatmeal or other grains — best in double boiler or on low heat. Flax Seed Oil Phase Four. Blood samples from healthy and sick people were systematically analyzed, and the findings tabulated.

According to her, blood samples from people with cancer, diabetes, and some kinds of liver disease consistently lacked Essential Fatty Acids EFAs. Unrefined Flaxseed oil, in practice, inhibits tumor growth and is useful in the natural treatment of cancer. EFAs, from refined oil, on the other hand, help promote tumor growth due to trans- fats present in all American commercial vegetable oil. These fats are the easiest to digest, assimilate, and utilize and aid the body in binding with toxins and carrying them to the bowels and out of the body.

The juicer is the most important appliance in the kitchen of a cancer patient. If necessary sell the stove and buy a good juicer. The enzymes in foods that have been cooked have been destroyed or changed into a different compound amino acid.

Cooked food can only be used as food and not as enzymes, for it has no life. For example, if you plant a raw potato it will grow. If you boil a potato and plant it, it will not grow it will rot. When a person eats anything processed he or she is not only eating "dead food" those in which the enzymes have been destroyed , but he or she is adding a second very destructive force to his body, the destructive force of food preservatives.

This may not be too significant for a normal healthy person, but for the cancer patient it may mean life or death. The liver must detoxify, destroy, or metabolize all foreign substances from the body. When one eats foods with preservatives, it adds an extra burden upon the liver, which the cancer patient cannot accept. Also, an animal cannot produce milk unless the female sex hormones are present in extra large quantities; this causes too many hormones in milk for the person who has cancer.

This will supply the intestines with adequate helpful bacteria. This is acceptable because the yogurt bacteria predigest the milk protein when added to it. The cancer patient will also want to give up peanuts. First, the peanut is not a nut, but a legume. Second, the peanut also has too much protein for the cancer patient. Third, it has been found that a fungus grows on peanuts, which produces aflatoxin.

To stimulate cancers in experimental animals cancer researchers use aflatoxin. All concentrated foods are extremely hard on the liver and should be given up. White flour and all products containing white flour should be avoided. These are not only concentrated carbohydrates, but almost always have preservatives added. Use fresh whole wheat bread, made from wheat grown free of all pesticides another liver destroying chemical. The essential vitamins are oxidized within three days at room temperature; hence the need for grinding only as used.

Freshly ground flour or freshly made whole wheat bread may be safely stored deep in a deep freeze for about a week. It is best, however, to use it within three days. The cancer patient will also want to give up all white sugar and white sugar products. The concentrated carbohydrates are hard on the liver, but more important in relation to cancer, they are very hard on the pancreas.

The pancreas, as noted earlier, is the first organ to be protected at all costs. White sugar has been processed refined and all the vital minerals are taken out. Cancer patients are always deficient in minerals. For those who have a sweet tooth, these organic foods may be eaten as desired: These are free of toxic pesticides and are not harmful to the pancreas or the liver. A cancer patient may also eat pure maple syrup or unheated honey, in that order.

The first is preferable because it has a higher mineral content. Soy products, except Lecithin, should be used very sparingly for two reasons: Eating soy products may be resumed when Dr. Lemon juice should replace vinegar altogether. Vinegar is too harsh on the delicate mucus membrane of the alimentary canal.

Also, the ingestion of large quantities of vinegar causes the digestive tract to become too acid and thus decreases the efficiency of the pancreatic enzymes and the digestive processes. For the period of intensive detoxification and treatment, tea, coffee, soft drinks, chocolate, liquor, tobacco, pork, and white rice should be avoided.

These also place additional stress upon the liver and pancreas as they are being detoxified. Structural and Neurological Stimulation. While the body is being properly detoxified and nourished, the nerve supply to the pancreas and liver should be considered.

A specific organ works only when told to by a nerve, chemical, or pressure stimulation. Upon taking careful histories, we found a number of cancer patients who had had blows to the head or spine. We feel that such experiences change the nerve impulses to the various organs.

If pressure on a nerve to the pancreas causes it to cease sending impulses to the pancreas, the pancreas will turn off and wait until the nerve tells it to work again. If the nerve is destroyed, or for some reason never sends a message, the pancreatic function will be greatly impaired. Probably the best way to reactivate the nerve enervation is through some form of manipulative therapy such as osteopathic manipulation, chiropractic adjustments, or physiotherapy. In general, they offer an integrated view of the issues concerned.

They may have the aim of supplying elements concerning the local situation and local analysis, in order to confirm the consensus of the population and of those in charge as to the situation and interventions to be carried out, and also to allow an evaluation of the impact of such interventions.

The participatory aspect should be emphasized rather than the precision or sophistication of data. An FAO work on participatory projects illustrates issues of evaluation, and especially the choice of indicators in the context of such projects FAO If data already collected are used or if a new survey is carried out for use on a higher level, the size and representativeness of the sample must be checked, and it must be ensured that the data can be linked to a more general set on the basis of common indicators collected under the same conditions method, period, etc.

Verification of the quality of the data is crucial. Before undertaking a specific data collection, a list of indicators and of corresponding raw data should be developed which can be used by services at all levels; it is not unusual to find that surveys could have been avoided by a better knowledge of the data available from different sources. To track down these useful sources and judge the quality of the data available and their level of aggregation, a good understanding is needed of the goals and procedures of the underlying information system.

The country had set up a monthly national information system on production estimates for 35 crops, covering information on crop intentions, areas actually planted, crop yields and quantities harvested in each state.

The information was obtained during monthly meetings of experts at various levels - local, regional and national. The information was then put together at the state level, and then at the national level, reviewed by a national committee of experts, and sent on to the central statistics office.

The different levels thus had some rich information at their disposal, coming from a range of local-level sources. Although it was certainly fairly reliable, being confirmed by a large number of stakeholders and experts, its precision could not be defined, in view of its diversity. The usefulness of such data varies depending on information needs and thus on the quality of the data required.

Data concentrated at the central level are probably useful primarily for analysing trends. On the other hand, apart from the figures, more general information on production systems exists at local level, and this can be useful for identifying relevant indicators of causes, or for simplifying monitoring of the situation. We have seen that there is a great number of indicators which differ widely in quality; the availability of corresponding data is variable, and any active collection will be subject to constraints.

Therefore the choice of indicators must be restricted to the real needs of decision makers or programme planners. This implies that a method is needed for guiding the choice. The main elements that will guide choice are: Any intervention is based on an analysis of the situation, an understanding of the factors that determine this situation, and the formulation of hypotheses regarding programmes able to improve the situation.

A general framework was presented earlier see Figure , representing a holistic model of causes of malnutrition and mortality, which was endorsed by most international organizations and nutrition planners. However, the convenient classification that it implies, for instance into levels of immediate, underlying or basic causes needs to be operationalized through further elaboration in context. The benefit of constructing such a framework, over and above the complete review of the chain of events which determine the nutritional situation, is to allow the expression, in measurable terms, of general concepts which, because of their complexity, are not always well defined.

For example, it is not enough to refer to "food security"; one should state which of the existing definitions is to be used, on which dimensions of food security the focus is placed and the corresponding indicators.

The use of conceptual frameworks when implementing programmes or planning food and nutrition is not new. Many examples have been developed, focusing on different aspects. The concept of food security is generally perceived as that of sufficient availability of food for all.

However, several dozen different definitions have been proposed over these last 15 years! This concept may, for example, comprise different aspects depending on the level being related to: In the first case, analysis will focus on agricultural production, and in the second the emphasis will be on improving the resources of those who lack access to a correct diet.

This preliminary brainstorming exercise will allow a better definition of the perceived chain of causes production shortfall, excessive market prices, defective marketing infrastructures, low minimum wage, low level of education, etc. It will then be easier to consider potential indicators of the situation and its causes, or potential indicators of programme impact.

Obviously it is not so much the final diagram which is of importance as the process through which it was developed. Insofar as the relations between all the links of the chain of events or flow data, depending on the type of representation have been discussed step by step and argued with supporting facts, the framework will be adapted to the local situation and will become operational. Methodologies have been developed for making this process effective in the context of planning, for example with the method of "planning by objectives" see ZOPP , which comprises several phases: During this planning process, all programme activities, corresponding partners, necessary inputs and resulting outputs as well as indicators for both monitoring implementation and evaluating impact of the programme will be successively identified.

The method acts as a guide for team work, encouraging intersectoral analysis and offering a simplified picture of the situation, so that the results of discussions are clear to all in the team.

Let us again take the example of a problem of food security. It can be broken down into three determining sectors: A series of structural elements can be defined for each sector: These elements affect both production levels and operation of markets.

A certain number of macro-economic or specific policies will affect one or all the elements in this block. Each block can be considered in a similar way, and this will provide the groundwork for a theoretical model of how the system works see C. The final steps in order to operationalize the model are i that of defining indicators that will, in the specific context of the country, reflect the key elements of the system, and ii , once policies and programmes have been chosen, that of identifying which of these indicators are useful for monitoring trends and evaluating programme impact.

This will be the basis for an information system reflecting the overall framework of the programme and how it should work. Another method has been proposed by researchers from the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp based on their field experience in collaboration with different partners Lefèvre et al. Basically, it stresses the participatory aspect, with the aim of obtaining a true consensus on the local situation, the rationality of interventions in view of the situation, and the choice of indicators.

It includes first a phase in which a causal framework is developed with the aim of providing an understanding of the mechanisms leading to undernutrition in the context under consideration.

The framework is constructed in the form of a schematic, hierarchized diagram of causal hypotheses formulated after discussions among all stakeholders. The way it is built tends to favour a clear, "vertical" visualization of series of causal relationships, eliminating the lateral links or loops that are often the source of confusion in other representations. In a second phase, a framework is developed linking the human or material resources available at the onset inputs , the procedures envisaged activities , the corresponding results of implementation outputs , and the anticipated intermediate outcomes or final impact of each activity or of the programme.

This tool is very useful for defining all the necessary indicators. This represents the formalisation of a real conceptual scheme. While many representations of conceptual models comprise comparable elements, it is essential that a model should never be considered as directly transposable, since it must absolutely apply to the local context. A direct transposition would therefore be totally counter-productive. While it is obvious that the conceptual analysis must ideally be carried out before the programmes are launched, it can be done or updated at any time, leading to greater coherence and a consensus on current and anticipated actions; this applies even more in a long-term perspective of sustainability.

In operational terms, establishment of a conceptual framework allows to define in a coherent way the various types of indicators to be used at each level. After defining the activities to be undertaken, status indicators referring to the target group will be identified, as well as indicators of causes that will or will not be modified by these activities, and indicators that will reflect the level or quality of the activities performed.

Lastly, indicators will be chosen to reflect the changes obtained, whether or not these are a result of the programme. Identification of precise objectives makes it possible to monitor changes in impact indicators not only vis-à-vis the original situation but also in terms of fulfilment of the objectives adopted.

During this initial phase, existing indicators are assessed, as well as those that will be taken from records or collected through specific surveys. It should be specified who needs this information, as well as who collects the data. In fact, it is important that this choice should be demand-driven, in order to be sure that the information selected is then actually used.

One might be dealing with several groups of users who do not exactly have the same needs: In this way, foundations can be laid for an information system essential for monitoring and evaluation. A proximate, often indirect, indicator will have to be sought and limitations to its validity in the context considered will have to be verified carefully which will depend on the precise objective. For example, can a measurement of food stocks at a given moment be validly replaced in the context under consideration with a measurement of food consumption in order to assess the food insecurity situation of a target group?

Is a measurement of food diversity a good proximate indicator for micronutrient intake? Does it at least consistently classify consumers into strong and weak consumers? Does it allow defining an acceptable level of consumption vis-à-vis recommendations? Will it allow children to be classified correctly vis-à-vis a goal of improved growth?

Validity studies are sometimes available locally, otherwise specific studies can be carried out; hence the usefulness of collaborating with research groups - for example from universities - who will be able to carry out this type of validation study under good conditions. The relationship between two variables, making them interchangeable for defining an indicator, may vary over time as a result of implementation of a programme, and this must be taken into account.

For example, if there is a clear link between family size and food insecurity in a given context, the criterion of family size can simply be taken as a basis for identifying families at risk. However, if a specific programme has been successfully carried out among these families, this indicator could lose its validity.

The ideal would be to use the same indicators in all places and at all times in order to have the benefit of common experience regarding collection and analysis, so that direct comparisons can be made.

In practice, however, concepts on indicators evolve steadily with the progress of knowledge, leading to the dilemma of being unable to carry out comparisons either with older series of indicators or with what is being done elsewhere. Comparability within time is obviously a priority in the case of monitoring. Preference will thus be given to indicators that, although not necessarily identical, are comparable, in other words give a similar type of information.

The issue of the comparability of data from different sources has been the subject of studies especially in the field of health indicators.

Whenever traditional indicators seem inadequate or insufficient in capturing the phenomenon or situation under consideration, the value of "innovative" and potentially promising indicators with excellent basic characteristics should not be neglected - although it is important to make sure that they have been validated for circumstances similar to those under study.

Since such innovative indicators usually have to be collected "actively", especially at the community level, the decision often depends on their technical feasibility as a guarantee of the sustainability of collection.

In a context of dietary transition, an indicator expressing the structure of food consumption for example the percent of energy from fat is more subject to major changes than the average consumption level expressed in calories, while also providing important information on the future health of the population considered.

In contrast, data on food habits tend not to change rapidly, unless an education programme is specifically developed for this purpose; the repeated collection of the corresponding indicators is thus of little use for purposes of short- or medium-term monitoring of the situation.

Slowness in collection and in getting the data back to user level are key factors to be considered, for many information systems are paralyzed by this problem, while timely information is often needed for decision-making or for adjusting the programme or the intervention e. From this point of view, the nature of potential sources of data for these indicators or the direct availability of these indicators at the level where they are needed can be decisive for their selection.

In practice, data collected to produce indicators need to be compared to a reference or to a "cut-off value". These can based on an international consensus within the scientific community or the political world, thus avoiding disagreement on interpretation and allowing comparisons between countries and regional extrapolations. Even so, the information is still sometimes insufficient; moreover, there are no international references for several categories of indicators. In such cases, the value of the same variable at a previous date will be taken as a point of reference.

Interpretation of changes in an indicator can be carried out only on the basis of our knowledge of the original situation; knowing a baseline therefore forms part of the information value of a number of indicators. For instance, was it better or worse before? The only information it supplies as such is the difference from a reference situation in a country without any major problem of undernutrition defined as a prevalence of 2. The impact of a programme cannot be measured without knowledge of the situation at baseline.

The existence of chronological series for an indicator will be considered when choosing among several indicators, because such series allow a rapid interpretation of impact in terms of trends. When previous data are old, an effort is made to assess their present level by projection, as is usually done for major demographic or economic indicators. In a certain number of cases, a preliminary survey is needed in order to establish the present level of various indicators.

Many countries undertook national surveys of their nutritional situation prior to establishing their policies and programmes, so that they could decide on the type or scope of the programme, and could subsequently evaluate the impact.

Such surveys are not cheap, but their cost must be examined in regard to that of the programme to be developed, and of the potential cost linked to the lack of evaluation of a programme that fails to yield the expected results. When passive collection of data from existing sources does not provide the necessary indicators in an appropriate form, active collection should be considered through surveys among the population with an appropriate level of disaggregation.

This may also be needed when the administrative coverage of the population, particularly of groups at risk, is insufficient. Firstly, it is important to consider that the preferred level of expression of the indicators varies by discipline individuals for the expression of epidemiological risks, households for the level of food security, administrative units for an economist, etc. The statistical units of measurement vary accordingly.

These three expressions of the same situation cannot be treated in the same way statistically. Data that have been collected at different levels, must be analyzed accordingly.

Depending on the type of indicator required, quantitative or qualitative survey techniques will be used, each based on specific methodologies. A good understanding of the limitations of the data thus collected in terms of their interpretation, representativeness, accuracy and precision is crucial.

Well-known guides written by specialists in each sphere are generally available. For the collection of data on the nutritional status of a population, for example, the WHO and FAO have published guides describing the procedures to be followed for sampling, collecting and interpreting anthropometric measurements in the context of cross-sectional surveys WHO, ; FAO, There is also a guide for the main types of surveys on food consumption Cameron and van Staveren, and publications on household food security indicators and how to measure them Maxwell and Frankenberger, ; Delaine et al.

Appropriate methods have also been developed in the fields of demographics, health WHO, and economics, in order to establish rough indicators when most of the usual sources are lacking. These qualitative methods, developed and commonly used in the social sciences, especially anthropology, are now widely used in economics and agronomy Chambers, in combination with more traditional quantitative surveys, but those working in the food and nutrition sector are not always familiar with them.

A description of these methodologies, adapted to different uses, can be found in various publications Maxwell and Frankenberger, ; Chambers, ; Den Hartog and van Staveren, ; Kidima, Scrimshaw and Hurtado, Examples of application and comments on limits of interpretation also appear in the work by IFPRI already cited Von Braun and Puetz, and in Scrimshaw and Gleason Finally, a recent study presents an analysis of a substantial number of experiences in various fields Cornwall and Pratt, These surveys are based on observations or interviews, either open or structured and of varying lengths, concerning beliefs, perceptions, knowledge, behaviours or practices of individuals or social groups, with varying degrees of precision, triangulation or participation, and with results expressed in various forms diagrams, maps, calendars, case studies.

The main difficulty is to synthesize the information in order to reach a conclusion, so that the information collected can be used, without converting it inappropriately into reductive numerical data. Not every survey can, however, deal satisfactorily with everything. It is therefore important in this case to check that periodicity, level of collection, representativeness and confidence intervals are relevant for each indicator, otherwise it is better to undertake a separate survey suited to the indicator considered.

Surveys on sub-samples often save time and resources.

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