Relationship Between Sleep Apnea & Obesity
Males are more susceptible to upper-body fat accumulation, most likely in the belly, due to sex hormone differences. A friend of mine got me hooked on Arizona Diet Green Tea. Family Canidae includes dogs Atelocynus Short-eared dog A. I have been using Nutrisystem's plan for about two months now. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing in western populations, possibly due to a combination of low physical activity and high-calorie diets, and also in developing countries, where it is associated with the urbanization of populations. My co-worker is using Jenny Craig but it was just to cost prohibitive for me.
Their main goal is to teach you about healthy eating patterns, behavior modification and incorporating physical activity. While it is helpful long-term, behavior change does not happen overnight and can be a challenging adjustment at first. Overall, a safe and effective commercial program will offer educational materials that have been reviewed by a licensed healthcare professional.
These materials will include information on healthy eating plans, exercise and behavior therapy. Nutrisystem features portion-controlled foods and structured meal plans that are both high in protein and low in glycemic index GI.
Low-GI means means that the foods do not cause your blood sugar to rise sharply. For people with diabetes, a low-GI diet can help keep blood glucose in control.
Nutrisystem plans, tailored for men and women, encourage you to consume three meals and two or three snacks per day. The plans offer about different pre-packaged to choose from. Foods are home-delivered, typically in shipments every four weeks, after you place an order online or over-the-phone.
You have to purchase additional fruits, vegetables and dairy products on your own. These are grouped into three categories: Smartcarbs nutrient-rich, high-fiber carbohydrates , PowerFuels lean proteins and healthy fats and vegetables non-starchy ones which can be eaten freely.
A meal planner explains how and when to add these foods into your diet. The program has an active online community, including discussion boards and dietitian-led chats. Counseling, for those who want it, is available and included with most Nutrisystem programs. With the recommended fruits, vegetables and dairy products, this diet plan can be considered well-balanced.
Research on Nutrisystem customers showed an average weight-loss of 18 pounds at three months and 27 pounds at six months. Some research finds a small weight-loss advantage for low-GI diets over high-GI ones, but other studies find no difference. So, this should be a healthy way to lose weight. Another concern is that participants using pre-packaged meals do not necessarily learn good nutrition, which makes maintaining weight-loss difficult once they return to buying food on their own.
Counselors are also available throughout the program and during transition and maintenance to educate about good eating habits. The final concern is the cost of the food. This does not include the additional fruits, vegetables and other foods that you must purchase on your own. Although Nutrisystem claims that the full cost of eating while on the program is about 15 to 40 percent less than what the average American spends on food, some consumers would rather buy food week-to-week.
Some employers and health plans subsidize or reimburse program costs. The program is developed by registered dietitians in consultation with an expert Science Advisory Board. The program is delivered by trained personal consultants in weekly motivational one-on-one consultations, in center, over the phone or via Skype. Consultants partner with members to identify personal motivators, set weekly menu and activity plans, monitor progress, overcome obstacles and positively reinforce success.
A typical menu day on Jenny Craig consists of three meals and three snacks per day, which, in combination with the added grocery items, adds up to an individualized menu calorie level that is based on your gender, age, height, weight and level of physical activity.
The standard menu caloric distribution is percent carbohydrate, percent fat and percent protein. For the Jenny Craig for type 2 diabetes menu, the caloric distribution is 45 percent carbohydrate, 30 percent fat and 25 percent protein.
For the first half of your program, you primarily follow menus that include Jenny Craig foods for seven days a week. For special events or other times when you need an alternate option, your consultants will offer guidance for meals on your own. When you have lost half of your total weight-loss goal, you make the transition to five to six days of menus that include Jenny Craig foods and one to two days of your own foods.
Throughout your program, you work with your consultant to utilize behavioral strategies to address challenges like emotional, social and unconscious eating and dining out, as well as to build an enjoyable, active lifestyle. Jenny Craig is a well-balanced, scientifically proven program on which you can expect to lose pounds per week on average. A clinical trial of people with type 2 diabetes demonstrated a 9 percent weight-loss at one year with greater improvements in diabetes control and heart risk factors as compared to usual care.
For both programs, Jenny Craig participants achieved three times greater weight-loss when compared to usual care. The daily menu is a model for learning nutritional balance, variety and moderation in food choices. Counselors are not dietitians. However, they have been trained to deliver an evidence-based program that is developed by registered dietitians and recommended by the Obesity Guidelines.
SLIM-FAST Available in supermarkets, grocery stores and pharmacies Slim-Fast has been around for more than 25 years and offers relatively quick weight-loss by substituting a calorie-controlled, sweet-tasting fortified meal replacement shake or bar for some of your regular meals. The program offers online support that includes weight, diet and exercise charting, chat rooms with online buddies, chat sessions with registered dietitians, a weekly newsletter, exercise programs and meal planning.
The diet plan is centered around two Slim-Fast meal replacements. A snack of calories is also offered during the day. Fruits and vegetables about servings are encouraged in addition to the meals and snack. Overall, if followed correctly, the plan does encourage additional fruits and vegetables and it stays at or above 1, calories a day, leading to a more balanced consumption than traditional liquid diets.
Meal replacement diets such as Slim-Fast are appealing because of their simplicity and convenience. If you plan to use Slim-Fast, you should consider doing so under the supervision of a healthcare professional who can help teach you how to transition yourself from the the shakes and who can monitor for potential complications of a fast weight-loss.
The biggest drawback is that dieters may not receive comprehensive information about nutrition, which means that as they transition back to regular foods, which they are likely to do eventually, weight gain may be inevitable. Also, the recommended calorie level may be too low for some dieters. The plan emphasizes a well-balanced diet and encourages lifestyle changes and increased physical activity.
The Weight Watchers program is called Beyond the Scale, which still emphasizes weight-loss but does it in a broader context of eating healthier, moving more and making more time for yourself.
Beyond the Scale offers an approach to healthier living that allows people to personalize the program and define their own success both on and off the scale. The Weight Watchers food plan, SmartPoints, is consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to make healthier eating simple by translating complex nutrition information into one simple number, giving each food and beverage a SmartPoints value.
Everything is still on the menu with SmartPoints, but it does encourage a healthier pattern of eating with more fruits, vegetables and lean proteins, and less sugar and saturated fat. Members are given a personalized daily SmartPoints target based on their height, weight, age and gender and also receive weekly SmartPoints to provide flexibility for occasions when members may eat more than usual. With SmartPoints, people can choose the foods they want to eat at home, in restaurants, in the workplace — or anywhere else food shows up in their lives.
Fitness is also a core component of Beyond the Scale. The focus is on helping members fit fitness into their lives. Each member gets a personalized FitPoints goal based on their current level of activity and encourages using tools such as the WeightWatchers FitBreak app. Weight Watchers also has supportive tools, including helpful content and a social media community within its app called Connect.
Members can follow the program in-person at weekly group meetings or privately through its OnlinePlus or personal coaching offerings. Overall, Weight Watchers nudges members toward a healthier pattern of eating and members typically lose pounds per week.
Weight Watchers is one of the few commercial weight-loss programs whose ability to produce weight-loss has been clinically proven repeatedly through research studies. Weight Watchers has multiple programs that range in cost: While Leaders have lived the experience all Leaders have lost weight on Weight Watchers and kept it off and are trained in behavioral methods to support weight-loss, they are not licensed dietitians.
Therefore, if there are special dietary requirements, it is always best to consult with a dietitian. Another concern is that foods that are zero in point value can have as much as calories in them. Eating a lot of these zero point value foods throughout the day can slow or stop weight-loss, especially for smaller older women or for people with slower metabolisms. If you are in the market for a commercial weight-loss program, you will find that you are faced with hundreds of choices, many with claims sounding too good to be true.
It is important when choosing a commercial program to evaluate them based on what will work for you. What is Obesity Treatment? Diet Books It is not uncommon for people to turn to popular diet books when seeking to lose or manage weight. Examples of popular diet books that advocate weight-loss methods generally deemed by dietitians to be safe and reasonably effective include: The South Beach Diet by Dr.
Dietary Supplements Perhaps the most complex set of products targeting individuals seeking to lose weight are dietary supplements. Commercial Weight-loss Programs Utilizing a commercial weight-loss center or program is one of the most popular options for someone affected by obesity. Thus, the excess of triglycerides and fatty acids created by the visceral fat cells will go into the liver and accumulate there. In the liver, most of it will be stored as fat.
This concept is known as 'lipotoxicity'. Hypercortisolism, such as in Cushing's syndrome , also leads to central obesity. Many prescription drugs, such as dexamethasone and other steroids, can also have side effects resulting in central obesity,  especially in the presence of elevated insulin levels. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing in western populations, possibly due to a combination of low physical activity and high-calorie diets, and also in developing countries, where it is associated with the urbanization of populations.
It is recommended to use both standards. BMI will illustrate the best estimate of your total body fatness, while waist measurement gives an estimate of visceral fat and risk of obesity-related disease. A study has shown that alcohol consumption is directly associated with waist circumference and with a higher risk of abdominal obesity in men, but not in women.
Excluding energy under-reporters slightly attenuated these associations. After controlling for energy under-reporting, it was observed that increasing alcohol consumption significantly increased the risk of exceeding recommended energy intakes in male participants — but not in the small number of female participants 2. Further study is needed to determine whether a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and abdominal obesity exists among women who consume higher amounts of alcohol.
In those with a BMI under 35, intra-abdominal body fat is related to negative health outcomes independent of total body fat. BMI and waist measurements are well recognized ways to characterize obesity.
However, waist measurements are not as accurate as BMI measurements. For this reason, it is recommended to use both methods of measurements. While central obesity can be obvious just by looking at the naked body see the picture , the severity of central obesity is determined by taking waist and hip measurements. A differential diagnosis includes distinguishing central obesity from ascites and intestinal bloating. In the cohort of 15, people participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES III , waist circumference explained obesity-related health risk better than the body mass index or BMI when metabolic syndrome was taken as an outcome measure and this difference was statistically significant.
In other words, excessive waist circumference appears to be more of a risk factor for metabolic syndrome than BMI. The increased amount of fat in this region relates to the higher levels of plasma lipid and lipoproteins as per studies mentioned by Eric Poehlman review. This parameter has been used in the study of metabolic syndrome   and cardiovascular disease. When comparing the body fat of men and women it is seen that men have close to twice the visceral fat as that of pre-menopausal women.
Central obesity is positively associated with coronary heart disease risk in women and men. It has been hypothesized that the sex differences in fat distribution may explain the sex difference in coronary heart disease risk. There are sex-dependent differences in regional fat distribution.
In women, estrogen is believed to cause fat to be stored in the buttocks , thighs , and hips. Males are more susceptible to upper-body fat accumulation, most likely in the belly, due to sex hormone differences. Even with the differences, at any given level of central obesity measured as waist circumference or waist to hip ratio, coronary artery disease rates are identical in men and women. A permanent routine of exercise, eating healthily, and, during periods of being overweight, consuming the same number or fewer calories than used will prevent and help fight obesity.
Adjunctive therapies which may be prescribed by a physician are orlistat or sibutramine , although the latter has been associated with increased cardiovascular events and strokes and has been withdrawn from the market in the United States ,  the UK ,  the EU ,  Australia ,  Canada ,  Hong Kong ,  Thailand ,  Egypt and Mexico.
A study published in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism ,  suggests that combining cardiovascular aerobic exercise with resistance training is more effective than cardiovascular training alone in getting rid of abdominal fat. An additional benefit to exercising is that it reduces stress and insulin levels, which reduce the presence of cortisol , a hormone that leads to more belly fat deposits. Self-motivation by understanding the risks associated with abdominal obesity is widely regarded as being far more important than worries about cosmetics.
In addition, understanding the health issues linked with abdominal obesity can help in the self-motivation process of losing the abdominal fat. As mentioned above, abdominal fat is linked with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Specifically it's the deepest layer of belly fat the fat you cannot see or grab that poses health risks, as these "visceral" fat cells produce hormones that can affect health e.
The risk increases considering the fact that they are located in the proximity or in between organs in the abdominal cavity. For example, fat next to the liver drains into it, causing a fatty liver , which is a risk factor for insulin resistance, setting the stage for Type 2 diabetes.
In the presence of diabetes mellitus type 2 , the physician might instead prescribe metformin and thiazolidinediones rosiglitazone or pioglitazone as antidiabetic drugs rather than sulfonylurea derivatives.
Thiazolidinediones may cause slight weight gain but decrease "pathologic" abdominal fat visceral fat , and therefore may be prescribed for diabetics with central obesity. Low-fat diets may not be an effective long-term intervention for obesity: The conclusion was that mean weight decreased significantly in the intervention group from baseline to year 1 by 2. This difference from baseline between control and intervention groups diminished over time, but a significant difference in weight was maintained through year 9, the end of the study.
There is a common misconception that spot exercise that is, exercising a specific muscle or location of the body most effectively burns fat at the desired location, but this is not the case. Spot exercise is beneficial for building specific muscles, but it has little effect, if any, on fat in that area of the body, or on the body's distribution of body fat.
The same logic applies to sit-ups and belly fat. Sit-ups , crunches and other abdominal exercises are useful in building the abdominal muscles , but they have little effect, if any, on the adipose tissue located there.
Several colloquial terms used to refer to central obesity, and to people who have it, refer to beer drinking. However, there is little scientific evidence that beer drinkers are more prone to central obesity, despite its being known colloquially as "beer belly", "beer gut", or "beer pot". One of the few studies conducted on the subject did not find that beer drinkers are more prone to central obesity than nondrinkers or drinkers of wine or spirits.
These symptoms can suggest the appearance of central obesity. Deposits of excess fat at the sides of one's waistline are commonly referred to as "love handles". Researchers in Copenhagen examined the relationship between waist circumferences and costs among 31, subjects aged 50—64 years of age with different waist circumferences. Their study showed that an increase in just an additional centimetre above normal waistline caused a 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Central obesity Synonyms beer belly, beer gut, pot belly, spare tyre, bread box A centrally obese male.
The body mass index is Specialty Endocrinology Abdominal obesity , also known as central obesity , occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health. Current Opinion in Lipidology. Retrieved on April 9, Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. The Metabolic Multi-risk Factor". Definition of metabolic syndrome: European Journal of Epidemiology. Annales de Réadaptation et de Médecine Physique.
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